The violin: a condensed history of the violin. Its perfection and its famous makers. Importance of bridge and sound-post arrangement

The violin: a condensed history of the violin. Its perfection and its famous makers. Importance of bridge and sound-post arrangement

THE ROBERT E. COWAN COLLECTION

I’KKSF.NIKI) riV> THK

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

C. P. HUNTINGTON

JUNE. :b’~^7.

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The Violin :

A Condensed History of the Violin.

ITS PERFECTION AND ITS FAMOUS MAKERS.

Importance of Bridge and Sound-Post Arrangement.

CHAS. GOFFRIE.

To perfect that wonder of travel — the Locomotive — has perhaps not required the expenditure o/
mere mental strength and application, than to perfect that wonder of
music— the Violin.”— W. E. GLADSTONE.
ilaJrHfilna:

a. ANDRE & CO

No. 1228 Chestnut Street.

The Violin:

A Condensed History of the Violin.

ITS PERFECTION AND ITS FAMOUS MAKERS.

Importance of Bridge and Sound-Post Arrangement.

CHAS. GOFFRIE.

To perfect that -uoonder of travel — the Locomotive — has perhaps not required the expenditure of

more mental strength and application, than to perfect that zvonder of

music— the Violin.”— IF. E. GLADSTONE.

ANDRE & CO.

No. 1228 Chestnut Street.
CALIFORHlL.

CONTENTS,

7 6^hO U-

V.L%bX

G L

Viol

Introduction. — Collection of Cremona Violins, etc.
Early Bow Instruments. — Ravanastron, Rebek, Crwth

da Ganiba, Viola and Violin,
Ancient Violin Makers, Kerlino, Caspar di Sala, Maggini, etc.
Amati Family. — Nicholas Amati.
Stradiuarius and Joseph Guarnerius.
Construction of the Violin — 58 different parts.
Patent Sound-board. ■ . . . .

The Bar, Bridge, and Sound-post.

Italian and Modern Varnish. .

Arrangement of Bridge and Sound-post.

Acquaintance with Eminent Artists — their Instrurnent

New Violins — their Qiiality of Sound.

Violin Makers of the Present Day.

Present High Value of Cremona Violins.

Violin Bows. …..

Catalogue of Violin Makers.

PAGE.

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Copyrierht secured, 1876, by Oluirles Ooffrie

THE VIOLIN:

AND ITS CELEBRATED MASTERS

INTRODUCTION.

To THE Amateurs of the Leading Instrument — the Violin.

For some years I have been occupied in forming a collection of
Italian string instruments, and have succeeded, after great labor and
expenditure, in bringing together the largest and most varied assort-
ment of Cremona Violins, Violas, Viols d’amour and Violoncellos,
including Stradiuarius, Guarnerius, Carlo Bergonzi, Amati, Guad-
agnini, Maggini, Rugeri, Montagnani, Grancino, Stainer, etc., etc. ;
also, Tourte and other bows that are to be found in this country.
These I have placed on view at Andre’s Music Store, 1228 Chestnut
Street, Philadelphia.

The value of the instruments ranges from $100 to over $1000
each, and the aggregate value exceeds $10,000. Some of the instru-
ments and bows are for sale.

In giving publicity to the following few pages, I wish it to be
understood that my object is to present, in a very condensed form,
the History and description of the Violin — from the period when
the bow was first introduced, to the time when both the Violin and
bow were brought to perfection.

I have only added what an experience of over 30 years taught
me in that important part — the proper arrangement of Bar, Sound-
Post, and Bridge.*

Any one desiring more information about the history of stringed
instruments, I refer to the works of the following authors : — Fetis,
Coussemaker, Savart, Otto, Hart, Abele, etc.

CHR. GOFFRIE,
jj^ E. Ijth Stfeet^ New York.

* In a future Edition, I hope to be able to give Photographs of Violins,
Diagrams of Bridges, etc. ; and to treat the subject more extensively.

(3) .

4 The Violin.

The earliest period when the Bow is supposed to have been
used to string instruments is about 2000 years ago. The instrument
of that time is called Ravanastron. It was of Indian origin, and is
still in existence under that name. It consisted of a wooden cylinder,
with serpent or animal skin as sound-board, a bridge, and two strings
made of animal intestines (gut).

A similar instrument, with two strings, is the Omerti. It was
played with a bow made of bamboo, and a small bundle of horsehair
tied to it, so as to give a slight bend.

Another instrument, called Rebab, or Rebek, is of Arabian
origin. It is made of a wooden frame, with parchment on top and
bottom, and has only one string.

The first instrument of the kind used in Europe, was the
Crwth, or Crouth, with three strings, sometimes more. This
originated in Wales, England, about the nth century. It was made
of a wooden back and sound-board, with holes for the hands to pass
through, in order to reach the strings.

About the 13th century, the Mandolina, with the various Viol’s
da Gamba, Viol’s d’amour and Basses were produced.

We now come to the period when the Violin proper, or Piccolo
Violino francese, was made ; also Violas of the present form. The
first Viol maker’s name was Kerlino. He lived in Brescia about
1450. The next, Pietro Dardelli, 1500 ; Gaspar Duiffobrugar (Tie-
fenbruker), 15 10. Then came the great Gaspar di Salo, from
Brescia, who produced Violins, Violas, etc., between the years 1555
to 1610. Both Duiffobrugar and Gaspar di Salo made their instru-
ments of the best description of wood of different qualities for
back and belly, and with good forms and sound-holes, which remained
models for the great makers following them. Giovani Paolo Mag-
gini, 1590 to 1640, supposed to have been a pupil or workman with
Gaspar di Salo, as there is some similarity in their instruments, also in
the manner of double purfling scroll work on the back, etc. ; but difter

The Violin. 5

in many important respects as to form, cut of sound-hole, also in his
varnish, which is generally of a yellow or brownish yellow color —
the varnish Caspar di Salo used’was mostly dark brown.

From these makers, we come now to those of Cremona, fore-
most of which is Andreas Amati, 1540 to 1580. As there is also some
similarity between his and the Gaspar di Salo model — choice of wood
and cut of sound-hole — it is probable that he had instructions from him,
or worked with him in Brescia. And, Amati was the founder of the
Cremona School for Violins. His works are carefully executed —
the model high, sound-holes short and not elegant. He made many
Violins of rather small size, which have a fine, sweet quality of
sound, but are not powerful. The varnish is generally brown, though
sometimes of a golden hue, good quality, and splendid effect, if ex-
amined by sunlight.

His sons, Antonius and Hieronymus, were skilful makers, and
worked for many years together, after models of their father, from
1570 to 1635. In their latter works, they made some marked im-
provements ; and to them we are indebted for the first form of the
instrument known as ” Amatise.” Hieronymus died a few years
later than his brother Antonius, and was the more skilful workman.

Nicholas Amati, the greatest maker of Violins, Violoncellos,
etc., of this illustrious family, was born in Cremona, 1596, and died
1684. He was the son of Hieronymus. His works bear the stamp
of genius, and are only inferior to his great pupil. Ant. Stradiuarius.
He has made Violins of various patterns, many of a small size.
About the year 1625, he began to produce his famous Violins, known
under the name of Grand Amati’s, being in larger proportions, and
having an outline of great beauty and elegance. The model is raised,
declining from the foot of the bridge to the outer edge, forming a
slight groove where the purfling is. The effect of this arrangement
ensures sweetness of sound. The material used was of the very best
description and quality as to acoustic requirements. The purfling
and finish were only surpassed by Stradiuarius ; and the varnish is of
a most brilliant golden color.

6 The Violin.

Antonius Stradiuarius, born in Cremona 1644, died 1737- He
was undoubtedly the most remarkable and famous Violin maker ot
all ; and his name is, as it were, familiar all over the civilized world.
He was a pupil of Nicholas Amati, and worked with that master till
the year 1668. About that time, he made some Violins after the
model of his master; and into these he placed Nicholas Amati labels.
About 1668, he left Nicholas Amati’s workshop, and worked on his
own account, but still after the ordinary sized Amati Violin ; and did
not introduce the Grand pattern until about the year 1686. From
this time, he gradually leaves the exact Amati pattern, makes his
Violins flatter, cuts his sound-holes more perfectly and gracefully*
pays more attention to the scroll, improves the color of his varnish,
and formed the general appearance of his instruments more to his
own individual fancy. His violins made between the years 1686-96
are known under the name of Stradiuarius Amatise, and another
form named the long Strad. But from the year 1700, Stradiuarius,
*hen in his 57th year, began to surpass all his former efforts, which
seemed to have been only preliminary measures to this, the golden
period of his life. The instruments made by him from 1700 to about
1725 are of a beauty and perfection not possible to describe; and
must be seen and compared with other makers’ instruments, even his
own from later and former periods, to be appreciated. He made over
a thousand instruments. These, with those of Joseph Guarnerius
and his pupils. Carlo Bergonzi, etc., mark the period, from which to
the present time, there has been no progress made in the science of
making Violins. None made by modern makers Can rival the above-
named great masters in high finish, varnish, or beauty of tone.

As there is no doubt that we have had, and have at the present
time, intelligent and well-educated makers of violins, etc., in every part
of Europe and America, and that there is no great difficulty in finding
suitable wood and materials for making them, there must be some other
reason for>the superiority of the old makers, and which I will try to
explain by-and-by ; also the cause of the failure to produce an
equally brilliant varnish.

The Violin. 7

There was another great genius, a maker of violins, and his
name was Joseph Guarnerius, also known under the appellation of
Giuseppe del Jesu ; he was born in Cremona, 1683, and died 1745.
There is some doubt as to his apprenticeship. I am inclined to be-
lieve that he worked both with Stradiuarius and his cousin Andreas
Guarnerius, for the simple reason that he was a genius of inquiring
mind, and could hardly help finding out how they proceeded in their
works, though he was, perhaps, irregular in attendance, and soon
followed his own ideas and inclinations, and worked for himself. In
his best time he produced violins made with the best materials,
excellent form and proportions, and a wonderfully fine and brilliant
varnish, and these violins can be placed by the side of the Stradiuarius
violins of the best period, except, perhaps, that they want that
master’s high finish. The violin used by Paganini belonged to
Joseph Guarnerius’ best period. This maker was married, but as he
was of irregular habits and too fond of wine, his family life was not
happy. He died in prison, were he had been incarcerated some
years, and the violins he made in prison are inferior, as he had to
work up with poor tools the materials brought to him by the jailer’s
daughter.

The Construction of the Violin.

We will now consider theViolin as to its form, constituent parts,
varnish, etc.

TheViolin in its present form and outlines has remained, with
only minute alterations, the same as in the i6th century. Stradiuarius
brought it to the highest perfection, but made no additions to its
several parts. On the form or model depends the quality of sound ;
a high built Violin like those of Amati, Stainer, etc., is soft in tone ;
flat built Violins, like Joseph Guarnerius’, Storioni’s, etc., are loud

often very powerful, with great carrying qualities ; the medium

form of Stradiuarius, his pupils, etc., have both mellowness and
power, and, therefore, the most satisfactory quality.

8 The Violin.

The various parts of the Violin are about 58. The back is
either in one or two pieces, the belly, of the finest quality of pine,
made from one piece, divided into 2 so that the narrow graihs join
in the middle; the sides in 6 pieces, the linings 12 pieces, sound-
post, bridge, neck, finger-board, nut, 4 pegs, blocks, purfling, tail-
piece and strings.

Belly and Back of Violin.

The most important part as to sound is the belly, the grain in
the pine running straight and close together ; but as it cannot be
found with the grain running at equal distances, it is usually found
best to have the finer grain in the middle, and let the larger run
towards the sides.* As to the proper thickness, much depends on
the quality of the wood and the form ; flat built Violins are thicker in
wood than high built ones. Nearly all the bellies of sound Violins
that I have examined were about as thick again in the middle, from
I inch behind the bridge to 3 before it, egg shaped, then running off
gradually to the purfling.

Those Violins which are of the same thickness all over are either
scraped out, which is very often the case, or badly made. The
back is made of hard wood, stronger, and nearly corresponds with
the belly in form. The belly is the vibrating part, and the back
must resist the pressure and great vibration, and throw the tone out,
a% it were, through the sound holes. The difFerenpe of vibrations
of back and belly ought to be like C to Dj

* I may here inform my readers that I have taken a patent for a new
sound-board made of hard and soft wood, so that the grains run in perfectly
straight lines, and can be arranged to run at any distance ; the consequence
is superior sonority. Many American piano-makers have promised to try it,
and I am confident if fairly tried it will be used in preference to the present
sound-board. It requires at first an outlay for new cutting machines, but the
saving in the wood will be very great, as all the wood is used up, nothing
has to be thrown away, and half the usual time for drying is sufficient.

/

The Violin. 9

The blocks, linings, etc., in the Violin, and the weight and
position of neck and head, have a good deal to do with the sound.
Savard and others have proved that a Violin without neck and head
loses much of its tone. A piece of wood, usually ebony, called
Violin holder, has, since the great violinist Spohr recommended it,
come niuch in use; it facilitates the holding of the Violin, protects
that part of the Violin where the neck rests, and, if well made, so as
to keep the pressure from the vibrating part of the belly, does not
prevent the vibration as ^rrfuch as the chin, and perhaps a large
beard. I once tried a small block of wood attached to the lower
part of the tail-piece ; it’ improved the tone by balancing the Violin in
the middle, I suppose.

The Bar.

The bar, a piece of pine wood, for the purpose of strengthen-
ing and regulating the quality of sound, is thin at the ends, and gradu-
ally rising in height to the middle, runs under the G string about three-
fourths of the length of the Violin ; the length, height, thickness
and position depend on the build of the Violin; if it is a new one,
with plenty of wood, the bar need not be strong nor very long, nor
fitted in with much spring ; it mav, indeed, be put in quite straight ;
,but in an old Violin, particularly in one rather weak, it ought to run
fin the direction of the G string, right under it, and with more wood
and spring in it fully sufficient to counteract the pressure of the strings.
jThe wood must be very old, and the grain run quite straight. To
give the necessary spring to a bar, I consider the best way is to cut
it to the right size, to see that it fits well in the place, and then
before gluing it on to take a little of the wood off gradually from the
middle to both ends, so that it does not fit any more. Then when
gluing it on it must be pressed on both ends with a little force, and
kept down till dry and firm. If the third and fourth strings have
not sufficient force after such an operation, the bar has not the
proper position or not enough spring, and must be changed. The
same must be done if the notes will not come out free, as then there

10 The Violin.

is too much spring given, and the pressure of the strings is insufficient
to counteract it.

Bridge and Sound-post.

Finally, I come to 2 small loose pieces of wood called bridge
and sound-post, or, as the French call the latter so appropriately,
Pame^ or the soul of the Violin. These 2 little pieces play a very
important part in giving the quality of the sound. The sound-post
is made of very old pine, and loosely fitted into the Violin ; the grain
is generally put crossways to that of the belly. The sound-post has
a nearly fixed position about one-quarter of an inch behind the right
foot of the bridge, but its exact position is only to be determined in
conjunction with the bridge. The bridge carrying the strings is cut
in that peculiar form with the view of having strength with the least
amount of wood, thus producing the greatest amount of vibrations.
The height, width and thickness a bridge ought to have, can only be
calculated with reference to the model of the instrument. The
higher the build of the Violin the lower should be the bridge. Its
position is usually between the two niches marked in the sound-
holes.

Varnishes.

Varnishes are prepared with oil, spirit or other fluid. It is the
opinion of eminent men who have made researches as to the cause,
why the art of making varnish resembling that of the old masters is
lost, as no instrument, not even from Italy, within a century, can
compare with a fine Strad, Joseph Guarnerius, Amati or any of the
makers of that period. It is believed the cause is that the gum
amber, or chief ingredient composing that varnish, came to the
Italian markets about that time as a regular branch of commerce,
perhaps from the interior of Africa, and has for some reason discon-
tinued so to arrive or to be imported. Also genuine dragon-blood,
for coloring matter, which is quite’ transparent, and easily dissolved in
an oily fluid, is no more found in the European markets, and the
English imitation of it is very inferior and not so transparent.

The Violin. 11

I have known and know some modern Violin makers who come
very near the old varnish in their imitations. In London, John
Oliver Lott, who was frequently employed by Vuillaume, in Paris,
for difficult imitations, his brother, George Lott, Carter who worked
for Davis, in Coventry street, Fendt, W, Hill and others. In
America, George Gemunder, in New York; Maclett, in Chicago;
F. Albert, in Philadelphia ; White, in Boston. The varnish has
much to do with the quality of sound. A new Violin unvarnished
sounds loud, and is softened by an oil varnish. Spirit varnish, which
dries quickly, is often used on that account, but does not give so good
a quality to the tone of a Violin. In my opinion Stradiuarius,
Guarnerius, Amati and other celebrated makers — whose varnishes
are full of fire and brilliancy — have two coats, first the golden
yellow, then the red or darker color.

The Arrangement of the Bridge and Sound-post.

Having said as much about the difi^erent parts of the Violin, I
return to bridge and sound-post to explain what experience of many
years with the best makers in Paris, London, and Brussels has taught
me about it.

I am certain that most Violins can be improved, simply by a
judicious arrangement of bridge and sound-post, and I can tell by a few
minutes’ examination whether a Violin is well made and sound has
a proper bar, and proper position of bridge and sound-post.

There is hardly a Violin of the old makers to be found in its
original condition, as the bar has to be changed to give more resist-
ance to the present high pitch, which is, in my opinion, too high for
the production of the best quality of sound.

To arrange a bridge on a Violin according to the position of any
fingerboard is decidedly wrong. The bridge must be calculated accord-
ing to the form of the Violin. A flat Stradiuarius or Jos. Guarnerius,
will carry a bridge of i inch and ^ high, i3/^ inches across the top,
and a little less across the feet ; it should not stand quite straight, but
12 The Violin.

slightly backward, so that the strings over the bridge form an even
angle. To save a good bridge, cut one or two extra notches for pull-
ing up the E strings.

The bridge ought to be tried with the sound-post, in different
positions, to find out where it sounds best ; if the Violin is a
valuable one, and the player is desirous of having it arranged in the
best possible manner, several bridges, cut slightly different in height
and width, ought to be tried, the best retained, and then only ought
the fingerboard be adjusted according to the bridge, after which it
must be tried again to see whether it souuds as well, as the slightest
difference of place will affect the sound. Whoever says that the
proper places can be determined by the eye alone is wrong, and I can
prove it in a few minutes.

I have found that repairers do not give that important considera-
tion to bridge and post which is necessary, and from the remarks of
some I learned that they could not know much about it.

I heard an instrument maker say to a gentleman who came to
have a new bridge put on a Violin that he had the exact model of
Signor Sivori’s bridge, and would make him a similar one ; such and
the like expressions are absurd ; every Violin must have a bridge
fitted according to its construction, and there are hardly two Violins
alike. It is true that many players come to instrument makers asking
how much will a bridge cost, and are not inclined to give more than
about 50 cents; then nothing else can be expected than one put on
quickly if it is a worthless instrument ; but if a Violin is well made,
of a good maker, and of some value, then the instrument maker
ought to advise a careful trial with more than one bridge, as there is
a great difference in the vibrating qualities of bridges. Three bridges
cut exactly alike, so that no difference can be detected by the eye,
will produce different qualities of sound. It is also necessary that a
tolerably good player should try the different degrees of tone, as well
as the various positions during arrangements of bridge and post.
Now if the quality of tone of a Violin is very soft, a hard bridge

The Violin. 13

will give it brilliancy ; if it is hard and loud, as often in new Violins,
a softer bridge and more wood in thickness, and the feet not cut too
fine, will mellow the tone, and this can sometimes be gained by a little
thicker post being used. The bridge moved nearer the post will give
brilliancy ; if moved too near the tone becomes hard. The sound-
post moved a little nearer the bar will soften the ist and 2d strings,
and give fullness to the 3d and 4th ; if moved nearer to the sound-
hole the first string will have more brilliancy. I would, however,
advise professors and amateurs not to make experiments on good
Violins themselves, as the instruments are very easily damaged, but
to get an experienced repairer or instrument maker to do it for them.
From experience I can recommend G. Gemunder and Konig in New
York ; White in Boston ; and C. Albert in Philadelphia.

Having had the pleasure and honor of the personal acquaintance
and friendship of many eminent artists, as Ernst, my master, Jpa-
chim, Vieuxtemps, Wieniawski, Wilhelmj, Sivori, Sainton, Carrodus,
and most of the celebrated artists who visited London during 30
years, and having played with them at my own Beethoven Society,
and Reunion des Arts Concerts, of which I gave about 20 yearly
for over 10 years, as also at Mr. Ella’s Musical Union, over ifyears,
I know how particular these artists are about their instruments, and
when any alteration is required.

About a year ago I called one day on Wieniawski at the Belve-
dere Hotel, New York ; he was playing, but very much displeased
with his Stradiuarius Violin, which had a new bridge on that did not
produce the same fullness and brilliancy of tone as did his old worn
out bridge. I looked at it and told him that it was not at all suited
to his violin, went with him to Konig, a very good violin maker and
repairer, in the Bowery, New York, and had a few bridges cut to
what I thought the proper height, width, and thickness for his Strad.;
he tried them and was much surprised to find that the second bridge
he tried was so far superior to the others that he expressed his warm-
est thanks to me and Mr. Konig, and said that his Violin never

14 The Violin.

sounded so well since he had it in his possession. I gave similar
hints to Mr. Matzka in regard to bridges for his excellent Violins,
and which he also proved on Mr. Havemeyer’s Joseph Guarnerius,
also to Mr. Bergner about a bridge for his Violoncello, and they ex-
pressed to me their entire satisfaction with the result.

Strings.

The thickness of strings is to be calculated according to the
;>trength of the violin. A well-made flat violin, with a strong bar,
will carry thicker strings than an old high-build violin, with a weak
bar.

I will now venture to give my opinion as to the reason why
new Violins are not as good in quality of sound as old Violins, and
not only those of the old celebrated makers, but also of inrc/ior old
made Violins put together by carpenters, or even amateurs.

There is no doubt that age, the influence of the atmosphere,
and much playing, are necessar)- for even the best made Violins, to
bring the vibrating qualities to perfection, and I have no doubt that
the Violins of the great makers were hard and rough in tone when
first made, similar to new Violins of the present day. A proof of this is,
that in Italy and other places, the Stradiuarius, Guarnerius, Storioni
Violins, etc., have only become favorites within the last 50 or 60
years. Before that time Gaspa di Sala, Maggini, Amati, Stainer and
others had the preference.

I have often played on Violins by Stradiuarius, Guarnerius, etc.,
in the Collections of Messrs. Plowden, Gillott, Vuillaume, Bon-
jour and others, which had not been played upon for years, and some
were in such a perfect state of preservation, that they could hardly
have been used at all, and I found that they were decidedly hard in
tone, resembling new Violins. That such a Violin having great age
in its favor will, if much played on, quickly improve is natural.

There are plenty of good Violin makers at the present day who
work after the models of the celebrated masters, use good material.

The Violin. 15

plenty of wood, and do not bake or chemically spoil it ; I have no
doubt that such instruments, with a good oil varnish, and after being
played lO to 2o years, will have a good quality of tone. I played on
Violins by Vuillaume, Chanot, Gand, and Miremont, Parisian ; W.
Hill, Wither, English ; and George Gemunder and White, etc.,
American makers, which were made about lO to 30 years ago, and
the quality of their sound is already very fine. ” Ether blown against
the inside of a new belly top will evaporate a portion of the rosin and
thereby assist the vibrating qualities.”

Mr. Eckert, in Columbus, Ohio, iMr. Kieckhofer, in Washing-
ton, Dr. Damainville, in New York, and Mr. Anton, in St. Louis,
have Violins by Gemunder, 10 to 25 years old, with splendid quali-
ties of sound, great power, and fine amber varnish. Konig made a
copy of Mad. Devernd’s Strad., of good tone and varnish.

Value of Instruments.

It may interest, and also surprise some of my readers when I
state some of the prices given and offered for Violins, etc., of the
celebrated makers. 1 have known Messrs. Goding and Fountain,
collectors of Cremona Violins, etc., have been with John Day and
other artists to see Mr. Gillott’s collection at Edgbaston, and with
Herr Joachim to see Mr. Plowden’s, and we tried some of Mr.
Plowden’s best Violins against Joachim’s in Hanover Sq. Herr
Joachim and Herr Strauss bought Stradiuarius Violins from the
Plowxlen collection at ^^300 each. I was also present at the public
sales of the above collections when some of the Violins brought
;^200, and ^^”300, the King Guarnerius ^700 under the hammer.
These instruments are now worth 500 to 800 guineas. Mr. J. B.
Waters, DeKalb Ave., Brooklyn, has also a fine Joseph Guarnerius
Violin of the Plowden collection, rich golden color, large pattern,
1737, valued at 3000 dollars gold. Wilhelmj’s Stradiuarius Violin,
which I knew for sale before he bought it, I recommended for its splen-
did tone; it was purchased for I think 3000 thalers, but Wilhelmj has

16 The Violin.

since refused S5000. I have read a letter written bv Mr. Hart from
London, to Mr. Bonjour, an amateur gentleman in Paris, who has a
fine collection of Violins, Violas, Violoncellos, etc., offering him one
thousand two hundred pounds sterling for a Stradiuarius Violoncello,
which Mr. Bonjour would not part with, even for that sum. High
as these prices are I have no doubt that they will still advance as the
demand becomes larger, not unlike to the high prices given for old
pictures.

There are already Violins like Paganini’s which no money could
purchase, and if they are once collected for museums the prices de-
manded will be fabulous.

Violins played by Former and the P resent
Celebrated Artists,

Paganini played on a Joseph Guarnerius.

Ernst on a Stradiuarius from Coding’s Collection.

Spohr on a Stradiuarius and J. Guarnerius.

De Beriot on a Maggini.

Moligne on a Stradiuarius.

Joachim plays on a Stradiuarius.

Wieniawski on a Stradiurarius.

Vieuxtemps on a Joseph Guarnerius.

Sivori on a Vuillaume (doubtful).

Wilhelmj on a Stradiuarius.

Sainton on a Guadagnini and J. Guarnerius.

Madame Norman Neruda on a Stradiuarius, formerly belonging

to Ernst.
Madame Camilla Urso on a Joseph Guarnerius.
Ludwig Strauss on a Stradiuarius.
Carrodus on a Joseph Guarnerius, filius Andreas.

The Violin, 17

Bows.

I will not close this subject without saying a few words about
Violin Bows and their makers, as a good Bow is indispensable to an
artistic performance on the Violin ; indeed, it may be termed the
magic wand of the violinist. I will only go back to the earliest
period when the Violin Bow received something like the present shape,
so that the haii could be stretched at the will of the player. Corelli,
about the year, 1680, was one of the first using such a bow ; then
came Tartini, who improved it, as also did Tourte, the father of
Francois ; the early bows run up straight to a point ; but it was
Francois Tourte who brought the Violin Bow to perfection, and to
such a degree that since his time none have surpassed nor even equaled
him, in giving the necessary spring and force combined with lightness
to the Bow.

The value of a fine Tourte Bow is now about 100 dollars, and
they are only rarely found at that price. Last summer when I was in
London and Paris looking out for fine Violin Bows, I could only ob-
tain four, at high prices, in London and none in Paris. Gand and
other instrument makers had none, and Mons. Bonjour and Louis
d’Egville who had some, would not part with them.

The best Bows after Tourte are Dodd, Lupot, Tubbs, Kittle,
Weichold, Bausch, Grimm and Vuillaume.

DICTIONARY

— OF —

VIOLIN MAKEES.

ACEVO, 1640. Cremona, very good, in the An\ati style.
ADDISON, WILLIAM, London, 1670.
AIRETON, EDWARD, London, 1730-1800.

ALDRED, London, Lute and Violin maker.

ALETZIE, PAULO, Monaco, 1720-30. Famous for his Cellos.
ALBANESI, MATTHIAS, born at Botzen or Bulsani, in the Tyrol, about

1621 ; highly esteemed. Said to be a pupil of Nicholas Amati. High •

model, with reddish brown varnish,
ALBANI, PAOLO, 1659; was also under Nicholas Amati.
AMATI, ANDREAS, Cremona, born 1520, died 1580.
AMATI, NICHOLAS, brother of the above.
AMATI, NICHOLAS, son of Andreas.
AMATI, ANTONIUS and HIERONYMUS, sons of Andreas. 1550 to 1634,

made Violins together, but some separately.
AMATI, NICHOLAS, born 1596, died 1684, son of Hieronymus. This was

the greatest maker of the Family.
AMATI, ANTONIO JEROME, 1640 to 1670.
AMATI, HIERONYMUS, son of Nicholas, born 1649. said to be the last

of the Family,
AMBROGI.

ANSELMO, PIETRO, Venezia, i8th century,
ARTMANN, GOTH A, Cremona pattern.
ASSALONE, Gaspard, Rome, i8th century, Cremona models.

B

BACHMANN, LOUIS CHARLES, Berhn, born I7i6,dicd 1800; considered

one of the best German makers. They are of the flat, Stradiuarius model.

amber varnish, and re ^mble the Cremonese closely. Otto considers them

next in point of qualii,, .

(18)

Dictionary of Violin 3Iakers. 19

BAGATELLA, PIETRO, Padua, 1766.
BAGATELLA, ANTONIO, Padua, 1782.

BAINES, London, about 1780.

BAKER, Oxford, about 1720,

BALESTRIERI, THOMAS, i8th century. This excellent maker was a

pupil of Stradiuarius, and made after his model, with fine reddish yellow

varnish.
BALESTRIERI, PIETRO, Cremona, rather earlier than Thomas.
BANKS, BENJAMIN, Salisbury. Born 1727, died 1795. Forster calls him

“one of England’s best makers.” His Cellos in particular are good,

chiefly of the Amati pattern ; varnish not very brilliant.
BANKS, BENJAMIN, son of the former, London, born 1754, died 1820.
BANKS, JAMES and HENRY, Salisbury, other sons of the same. James

was an excellent workman, and dates about 1805.
BARRETT, JOHN, London, about 1725. He made some instruments of

very good tone, but rather inferior workmanship.
BARTON, GEORGE, London, died 1810.
BAUCH, Leipzig.

BEKMAN, SWENO, Stockholm, 1706.
BELLOSIO, Venetian maker, 1 8th century. Similar to Sanctus Sera-

phino in pattern.

BENOIST, Paris, i8th century.

BENTE, MATTEO, Brescia, about 1580; a maker of merit in the style of

Gaspar di Salo and Maggini.
BAGANZI, FRANCISCO, Cremona, 1687.
BERGONZI, CARLO, Cremona, 1712 to 1755; considered by authorities to

be the best pupil of Stradiuarius. He made instruments of the same beau-
tiful and brilliant tone which rendered his master so famous.
BERGONZI, NICHOLAS, son of Carlo.
BERGONZI, MICHAEL ANGELO, another son of Carlo.

BERNADEL, Paris, i8th century.

BETTS, JOHN and EDWARD. London, 1790-1823. They were said to

be pupils of Duke ; and chiefly imitated the Cremona instruments.

They gained a good reputation both at home and abroad.
BRINTERNAGLE, Gotha, i8th century; a German imitator of the

Cremona Violins.
BOCQUAY, JAQUES, Paris, 1620; highly esteemed in France,

BODIO, Venezia, i8th century.

BOLLES, English, 1675.

20 Dictionary of Violin 3Iakers.

BORELLI, ANDREAS, Parma, 1740.

BOULLANGIER, London.

BREMEISTER, JAN., Amsterdam, 1707.
BROSCHI, CARLO, Parma, 1744.
BRETON, (Le), Paris.
BROWN, JAMES, born 1760, died 1834.
BROWN, JAMES, son, born 1786, died i860.

BUCHSTADTER, Ratisbon, i8th century ; a good German maker.

BUDIANI, JAVIETTA, Brescia, about 1580. Made after the style of Gas-
pard di Salo and Maggini,

CAEStA, PIETRO ANTONIO DELLA, Trevisa, i8th century, imitated

Stradiuarius.
CAMILAS, CAMILE, (de), Mantua, 1720; esteemed as a pupil of Stra-
diuarius.
CAPPA, GIOFREDA, at Cremona in 1590, and Piemont in 1640; pupil of

Nicholas Amati.
CAPPA, GUISEPPE, Saluzzo, end of i6th century.

CAPPER, (or Cappa), Mantua,

CARTER, JOHN, London, 1789.

CARLO, GUISEPPE, Milan, 1769.

CASSINO, ANTONIO, Modena, 17th century.

CASTAGNERI, JEAN PAUL, Paris, 1639 to 1662, considered one of the

best old French makers.
CASTAGNERI, ANDREA, Paris, i8th century.
CASTRO, CELIONTUS.

CHANOT, Mirecourt, France, i8th century. «

CHANOT, Paris, now living.

CHANOT, GEORGE, London, now living.

CHAPPUIS, (or Chappuy), AUGUSTINE, about 1710.

CHARLES, THERESS, London, now livin*.

CHERUTHI, Mirecourt, i8th century.

CHEVRIER, Paris, i8th century.

CHRISTA, JOSEPH PAUL, Munich, 1730.

CHRISTOPHORI, BARTOLOMEO, Florence, i8th century.

CIRCAPA, THOMASO, Naples, 1730, resembles Gagliano.

CLARK, London.

COLE, THOMAS, London, 1690.

UNIT
Dictionary of Violin Makers. 21

COLLINGWOOD, JOSEPH, London, i8th century.

CONTRERAS, JOSEPH, Madrid, 1745.

CORSBY, GEORGE, London, 1830-60.

COSTA, PIETRO, della Treviso, 1660-90.

CONWAY, WILLIAM, 1745.

COLLIER, SAMUEL, 1755.

CRASK, GEORGE, Cremona imitator.

CROWTHER, JOHN, 1755 to 1810.

CROSS, NATHANIEL, London, about 1720.

D

DARDELLI, PIETRO, Mantua, 1500.
DAVIS, WILLIAM, London. 1800-1840.
DECOMBRE, AMBROISE, Tournay, 1700 to 1735.
DESPONS. ANTOINE, Paris, about 1725.
DIEHL, NICHOLAUS, Darmstadt, 17th century.

DIEHL, Hamburg.

DODD, THOMAS, London; his instruments had considerable reputation.

Died in 1810, at the great age of 105 years.
DODD, THOMAS, son of the above.

DOMINICELLI, Ferrara, i8th century.

DUKE, RICHARD, London, 1767 to 1777. This artist was very celebrated

in his day ; frequently stamped his name on the back.

DURFEL, Altenburg, made good Violin and double Basses.

DUIFFOPRUGCAR, GASPARD, established in Bologna in 1510; this

appears to be the first maker of the Genuine VioUit ; his original name was

Tiefenbriicker.

E

EBERLE, JEAN ULRIC, Prague, 1749; this is one of the celebrated Ger-
man makers.

EBERTI, TOMMASO, about 1730.

EDLINGER, THOMAS, Prague, 171 5.

EDLINGER, JOSEPH JOACHIM, Prague, son of Thomas, an excellent
maker.

ERNST, FRANCOIS ANTOINE, born in Bohemia, in 1745. This artist
made some excellent instruments.

EVANS, RICHARD, London, 1742.

22 Dictionary of Violin Makers.

FALLO, Cremona, 1752.

FARINATO, PAUL, Venezia, about 1700.

FENDT, or FINTH, Paris, 1763-80 ; good instruments and very close copies
of Stradiuarius.

FENDT, BERNHARD, born 1775, died 1825. Nephew of the above ; good
imitations of the Cremonas.

FENDT, BERNARD SIMON, London, born 1800, died 1852.

FENDT, MARTIN, brother of above, born 1812, died 1845.

FENDT, JACOB, born 181 5, died I849.

FENDT, FRANCIS.

FENDT, WILLIAM, son of Bernard Simon, born 1833, died 1852. All the
Fendts have the reputation of being excellent workmen.

FICHTOLD, HANS, 1612.

FICKER, JOHANN CHRISTIAN, Cremona, 1722. German workmanship.

FICKER, JOHANN GOTTLIEB, 1788.

FIORILLO, GIOVANNI, Ferrara, 1780.

FLEURY, BENOIST, Paris, about 1720.

FLORENTUS, FLORINUS, Bologna, 1690.

FORSTER, WILLIAM. The first violin maker of this celebrated name,
born 1713, died 1801.

FORSTER, WILLIAM ; born 1739, ^i^d 1808. This maker was very cele-
brated for his violas and violoncellos, and is highly esteemed in England;

FORSTER, WILLIAM, the third of the name; born 1764, died 1824.

FORSTER, WILLIAM, the fourth of the name; born 1788, died 1824.

FORSTER, SIMON ANDREW, born 1801, author, in conjunction with
William Sandys, F. S. A., of an excellent work on the violin and other
instruments played with the bow.

FOURRIER, NICHOLAS, Mirecourt, died in Paris, 18 16 ; after the Cremona
school.

FRITZCHE, SAMUEL, Leipsic, 1787, pupil of Hunger ; Italian model, am-
ber varnish,

FRITZ, BERTHOLD. Leipsic, 1757.

FURBER, DAVID, about 1700.

FURBER, MATTHEW, son of David, 1740.

FURBER, JOHN, grandson of David, 1759.

FURBER, MATTHEW, son of above, died 1840.

FURBER, JOHN, son of Matthew, 1840.

Dictionary of Violin Makers. 23

Gr

GABRIELLE, GIOVANNI BAPTISTA, Florence, i8th century. Very good

workmanship.
GAETANO, PASTA, Brescia, 1700. Good work.
GAETANO, ANT., Cremona, i860. Not in good proportions.
GAGLIANO, (or Galliano), ALESSANDRO, Naples, about 1710, pupil of

Stradiuarius. He made some good instruments which possess a bright and

sparkling tone.
GAGLIANO, JANUARIUS, Naples, 1740, son of Alessandro.
GAGLIANO, NICHOLAUS, Naples, another son of Alessandro.
GAGLIANO, FERDINANDO, Naples, made to 1790.
GAGLIANO, GUISEPPE, Naples, 1790.
GAGLIANO, GIOVANNI, Naples.
GAGLIANO, ANTONIO, Naples.
GAGLIANO, RAPHAEL, Naples, son of Giovanni.
GAGLIANO, ANTONIO, Naples, son of Giovanni. Most of the instruments

by this family have a good quality of tone.

GALERZENA, Piedmont, 1790.

GAND, Paris, one of the very best French makers, son-in-law to Lupot.

GARANA, MICHAEL ANGELO, Bologna, an excellent maker; about 1700.

GATTANANI, Piedmont, 1790.

GAVINIES, Paris, 18th century.

GELDER, JOHANN BENEDICT, Fissen.

GELDER, JOHANN ANTONY, Fissen.

GERANS, PAUL, Cremona, about 1615.

GERLE, JEAN, Nuremberg, about 1540.

GILKES, SAMUEL, London, 1787 to 1827.

GILKES, WILLIAM, born 181 1.

GIORDANE, ALBERTO, Cremona, 1735.

GOBETTI, FRANCISCO, Venezia, about 1700; a pupil of Stradiuarius, and

an excellent artist.
GOFRILLER, MATTEO, Venezia, about 1725, a good maker, after the

Cremona pattern.
GOFRILLER, FRANCISCO, Venezia, about 1725.
GRAGNANI, ANTONIO, i8th century.

GRANCINO, GIOVANNI, Milan, middle of 17th century, pupil of Amati.
GRANCINO, PAOLO, same as above.

GRANCINO, GIOVANNI BAPTISTA, Milan, son of first named.
GRANCINO, GIOVANNI BAPTISTA, Milan, early in i8th century.

24 Dictionary of Violin Makers.

GRAN’CINO, FRANCISCO; this artist made till about 1760.

GRIMM, Berlin, now living.

GROBITZ, Warsaw, about 1750.

GUERSAN, Paris, an excellent maker, about 1730.

GUGEMMOS, Fissen, Bavaria.

GUIDANTUS, GIOVANNI FLORENUS, Bologna, about 1750, an excellent

maker.
GULETTO, NICHOLAS, Cremona, about 1790.
GUADAGNINI, LORENZO, Cremona, 1690 to 1720, pupil of Straduarius,

and highly esteemed as a maker ; followed the style of his celebrated

teacher.
GUADAGNINI, LORENZO, Placentia and Milan, 1742, generally of the

smaller model, a careful workman.
GUADAGNINI, JOHANNES BAPTISTA, Cremona, 1710-50, pupil of Stra-

diuarius.
GUADAGNINI, GUISSEPPE, Turin, 1751.
GUADAGNINI, GIOVANNI BAPTISTA, Placenza, 1754-85.
GUADAGNINI, GUISEPPE, Parma, 1793.
GUARNERIUS, ANDREAS, Cremona, born 1630, dates to 1680. Pupil of

Hieronymus Amati. First class workmanship.
GUARNERIUS, GUISEPPE, son of Andreas, Cremona, dates from 1690 to

1730. Very superior workmanship.
GUARNERIUS, PIETRO, son of Andreas.
GUARNERIUS, JOSEPH, nephew of Andreas. Known as Guiseppe del

Jesu to distinguish him from his cousin of the same name. Joseph was

the greatest maker of the Family, born 1683, died 1745 at Cremona.
GUIDANTUS, GIOVANNI F., Bologna, 1740.

H

HAMUS, JOHANN GOTTFRIED, Rome, i8th century.

HARBOUR, London, 1785.

HARDIE, MATTHEW, Edinburgh, about 1820.

HARDIE, THOMAS, son of above, 1856.

HARE, JOSEPH, London, 1720.

HARRIS, CHARLES, London, about 181 5.

HARRIS, CHARLES, son of the above.

HART, JOHN, London, maker and restorer, also a great connoisseur of

Italian instruments.
HART, GEORGE, his son and successor.
H ASSERT, Rudolstadt, i8th century.

Dictionary of Violin MaJcers. 25

H ASSERT, Eisenach, i8th century.

HEESOM, EDWARD, London, 1750.

HELMER, CHARLES, Prague, 1740.

HILDEBRANDT, MICHAEL CHRISTOPHER, Hamburg, 1765.

HILL, WILLIAM, London, 1740.

HILL, WILLIAM, now living.

HILL, JOSEPH, London, 1770.

HIRCUTT, English maker, about 1600.

HOFFMANN, MARTIN, Leipsic.
HOLLOWAY, J., London, 1794.
HUME, RICHARD, Edinburgh, about 1530,

HUNGER, CHRISTOPHER FREDERICK, Leipsic, 1787, a superior Ger-
man maker.

J

JACOBI, MISSEN, a famous maker.

JACOBS, Amsterdam, 18th century.

JAY, HENRY, London, 1615.

JAY, THOMAS, London, about 1700.

JAY, HENRY, London, 1750, a maker of Kits.

JAUCH, Dresden, about 1765, good German maker.

JOHNSON, JOHN, London, 1753.
JULIANO, FRANCISCO, Rome, 1700.

K

KAMBL, JOHANN CORNELIUS, 1635.

KENNEDY, ALEXANDER, London, died 1785.

KENNEDY, JOHN, died 1816.

KENNEDY, THOMAS, London, said to have made 300 violoncellos.

KERLIN, JOAN, Brescia, 1450, a ” viol ” maker.

KIAPOSSE, SAWES, Petersburg, 1748.

KLOTZ, MATTHIAS, Tyrolese, about 1675.

KLOTZ, EGITIA, often considered the best of the family.

KLOTZ, GEORGE, brother of Egitia.

KLOTZ, SEBASTIAN, large model, perhaps the best of the family.

KLOTZ, MICHAEL, 1771.

KLOTZ, JOSEPH, son of Egitia, Mittenwald, 1774. Egitia and Sebastian
are considered the best makers of the family, and it is said that a ” noble
lord ” offered for one by Sebastian ^300 and an annuity of ^100.

KOHL, JEAN, Munich, Luthier to the Court, 1570.

26 Dictionary of Violin Makers.

KOLDITZ, MATTHIAS JOHANN, Munich, 1722.
KOLDITZ, JAQUES, Rumbourg in Bohemia, 1790.

KOLIKER, Paris, a noted maker and collector, about 1750.

KNITTING, PHILIP, Mittenwald, 1760.
KNITL, JOSEPH, Mittenwald, 1790.
KRINER, JOSEPH, Mittenwald, 1785.

LACASSO, ANTONIO MARIA, Milan.

LAGETTO, Paris, about 1650.

LAMBERT, JOHANN HENRY, Berlin, 1760.

LAMBERT, Nancy, 1760.

LANDOLPHI, CARLO, Florence, 1750, an excellent maker, followed the
Cremona pattern.

LANDOLPHI, FERDINAND, Milan, 1750.

LANSA, ANTONIO MARIA, 1675.

LAUTTEN, L. W.

LECLERC, Paris, 1 8th century.

LENTZ, JOHANN NICHOLAUS, London, 1800.

LEWIS, EDWARD, London, about 1700.

LINAROLLI, Venezia, about 1520, maker of rebecs, &c.

LOLI, J., Naples, 1627.

LOTT, JOHN FREDERICK, London, born 1775, died 1853.

LOTT, G. F., son of the above.

LOTZ, THEODORE, Prestburg, about 1735.

LUPOT, FRANCOIS, Stuttgard, about 1770.

LUPOT, NICHOLAS, born at Stuttgard, 1758, went to Orleans 1786, and
Paris 1794, died 1824; this artist is considered the best of the French ma-
kers ; he followed the models of Stradiuarius, used excellent wood and
good varnish, much in the style of that master. They now demand high
prices.

M

MAGGINI, GIOVANNI PAOLO, Brescia, 1590 to 1640; this celebrated
artist was a pupil of Caspar di Salo. They are generally of a large pattern
with elevated model reaching almost to the edges ; narrow ribs, double
purfling, fine yellowish brown or golden colored varnish of good quality.
Dc Beriot introduced one which brought them at once into esteem and for
which he has been offered almost fabulous sums.

Dictionary of Violin Makers. 27

MAGGINI, PIETRO SANTO, Brescia, son of Giovanni, 1630 to 1680 ;

followed the style of his father ; he was very famous for his Double Basses.
MAIER, ANDREA FERDINAND, Salzburg, 1746. Little is known of

this maker, except that he made the small Violin on which Mozart first

learned to play,

MALDONNER, Bavaria, about 1760.

MALLER, LAUX, Venice, was an early and highly esteemed maker of

Lutes.
MARIANI, ANTONIO, Pesaro, 1570 to 1620, an imitator of Gaspard di Salo.

MARATTI, Verona, 1690.

MARQUIS DE LAIR. French maker, about 1800.
MARSHALL, JOHN, London, 1760.

MARTIN, London, 1790,

MAUCOTEL, CHARLES, London, an excellent workman.
MAUSIELL, LEONARD, Nuremberg, 1725, a close imitator of Steine.
MAYRHOF, ANDREA FERDINAND, Salzburg, 1740.
MEDARD, HENRY, Paris and Nancy. A superior French maker, pupil

of Nicholas Amati.
MERLIN, JOSEPH, London, about 1780.
MEUSIDLER, JEAN, Nuremberg, about 1540.
MEZZADIE, ALEXANDER, Ferrara, about 1700.

MIER, London, 1786.

MILANI, FRANCISCO, Milan, about 1760.

MILLER, London, about 1750.

MOHR, PHILIP. Hamburg, 1650.

MONTADE, GREGORIO. Cremona, 1735.

MONTAGNANA, DOMINICO, Venezia, 1725; this artist’s instruments Were

of large size, the varnish exceedingly briUiant, of a yellowish red color,

and the tone everything that can be desired.
MORRISON, JOHN, London, 1780 to 1819.
MORELLA, MORGLATO, Mantua, about 1550.

N

NAMY, Paris, about 1800.

NAYLOR, ISAAC, Leeds, 1788.
NEWTON, ISAAC, 1780.

NICHOLAS, Geneva, 1790.

NIGGEL, SYMPERTUS, Paris, about 1650.
NORMAN, BARAK, London, 1690 to 1740.

28 Dictionary of Violin Makers.

NORRIS AND BARNES, pupils of Thomas Smith, 1785 to 1818.
NOVELLO, VALENTINO, Venezia, about the middle of the i8th century.
NOVELLO, MARCO ANTONIO, Venezia, same date as above, i8th century.

o

OBUE, BARTOLOMEO, Verona.

ODOARDI, GUISEPPE, early i8th century.

OTTO, JACOB AUGUSTUS, born at Gotha, 1762, died 1830; author of the

celebrated Book on the Construction of the Violin. He made some good

instruments.

PANORMO, VINCENZIO, born near Palermo, 1734 ; went to England about
1772, died in 1813; his instruments are carefully constructed on Cremona
models ; his Cellos are particularly good.

PANORMO, JOSEPH, son, a good workman.

PANORMO, GEORGE LEWIS, another son.

PANORMO, EDWARD.

PAMPHILON, EDWARD, London, 1685.

PANSANI, ANTONIO, Rome, 1785.

PARKER, DANIEL, London, 1714.

PASTA, GAETANO, Brescia, early in the i8th century.

PASTA, DOMINICO, Brescia, same date.

PEARCE, JAMES and THOMAS, London, 1780.

PEMBERTON, J., London, 1580.

PFRETZSCHNER, GOTTLOB, Cremona, 1749.

PFRETZSCHNER, CARL FREDERICK. Cremona.

PICHOL, Paris.

PIRINO, Padua, 1712.

PIQUE, Paris ; an excellent maker and master of Lupot.

PIERRAY, or PIERRET, CLAUDE, Paris, a charming workman.

PERRY, Dublin.

PIETE, NOEL, Paris, about 1785.

PLACK, FRANCIS, Schoenback, 1738.

POLLUSHA, ANTONIO, Rome, 1751.

PONS, Grenoble, France, 1787.

POSSEN, LAUXMIN, Bavaria, about 1540.

POWELL, ROYAL and THOMAS, London, 1785.

PRESTON, JOHN, York, 1789.

Dictionary of Violin Makers. 29

R

RACCERIS, Mantua, 1670. Like the Gaglianos.

RAF, Bavaria,

RAMBEAUX, Paris, an excellent workman.

RAPHAEL, NELLA, Brescia, i8th century.
RAUCH, JAQUES, Mannheim, 1730 to 1740.
RAUCH, SEBASTIAN, 1742 to 1763.

RAUCH, Breslau.

RAUCH, Wurtzburg.

RAUT, JEAN, Bretagne, about 1790.
RAYMAN, JACOB, London, 1641.
REICHEL, JOHANN GOTTFRIED, Absom.
REICHEL, JOHANN CONRAD, Neukirch, 1779.

REISS, Bamburg.

REMY, Paris.

RENISTO, Cremona, 1740. Pupil of Carlo Bergonzi.

RICOZALIS, LUDOVICUS, 1756.
RIMBOUTS, PETER, Amsterdam.
ROOK, JOSEPH, London, 1777 to 1852.
ROTH, CHRISTIAN, Augsburg, 1675.

ROVELIN, 18th century.

RUDGER, Cremona.

RUGGERI, FRANCISCO, Cremona, 1670 to 1720. This maker ranks high ;

his instruments are considered nearly equal to the Amatis ; their quality is

similar, and the style of work is easily seen to belong to the same class ;

some of his grand pattern are said to even surpass the Amatis. His

work is extremely clean, and the varnish fine.
RUGGERI, GUIDO, Cremona, 1679.

RUGGERI, GIOVANNI BAPTISTA, son of Francisco, Brescia, 1696.
RUGGERI, PIETRO GIACOMO, Brescia, 170010 1720.
RUGGERI, VINCENZIO, 1700 to 1730.
RUPPERT, FRANCIS, Erfurth.

s

SAINT, PAUL, Paris, about 1650.

SALO, GASPAR DI, Brescia, from 1560 to 1610. This celebrated artist
was a contemporary of the ancient Amatis. The varnish on which the
great Cremonese makers estabUshed that notable reputation which distin-
guishes them to the present day, bears a strong analogy to that of Gaspar

30 Dictionary of Violin Makers.

di Salo, His instruments are large, double purfled, and large sound
holes. He is esteemed the greatest maker of his time.

SALLE, Paris, 1800.

SANONL GIOVANNI BAPTISTA, Verona,

SANTI, GIOVANNI, Naples, 1730-

SANCTUS, SERAPHINO, Venezia, about 1730; of the Steiner school, and
superior workmanship.

SAPINO, Cremona.

SANZO, SANTINO, Milan.

SAUNIER, born in Lorraine, 1740.

SCHEINLEIN, MATTHIAS FREDERICK, Langenfeld, born 1710. died
1771.

SCHEINLEIN, JEAN MICHAEL, Langenfeld, born 1751.

SCHMIDT, Cassel, 1817.

SCHONGER, FRANCIS, Erfurth.

SCHONGER, GEORGE, Erfurth.

SCHORN, JACOB, Salzbourg.

SCHORN, JOHANN, Inspruck, 1688.

SCHOTT, MARTIN, Prague.

SHAW, London, 1656.

SIMPSON, JOHN, London, 1790.

SIMPSON, J. and J., sons of the above.

SIMON, Salzbourg, 1722.

SIMON, Paris.

SMITH, HENRY, London, 1629.

SMITH, THOMAS, London, 1756 to 1799.

SMITH, WILLIAM, London, 1771.

SOLOMON, a good French maker.

SPEILER, 18th century.

STADELMAN, DANIEL, Vienna, 1744.

STADELMAN, JOHANN JOSEPH, Vienna, 1784.

STEFANO, 1725.

STEINER, JACOB, of Absom in the Tyrol, born about 1620, at the age of
seventy retired to a Convent ; while yet a youth he obtained employment
with Nicholas Amati, and made some instruments which, with the sixteen
(called the Electors’) are considered the finest specimens of his talent.
At the present time they are not considered so valuable as the great Ital-
ian masters.

STOSS. FRANCIS, Bavaria.

Dictionary of Violin Makers. 81

STORIONI, LORENZO, Cremona, living in 1782, said to be the last of the
great Cremona makers. They resemble those of Joseph Guarnerius.

STRADIUARIUS, ANTONIUS, Cremona, born 1644, died 1737, at the grc at
age of ninety-three. In the early part of his life he was a pupil of Nicholi^
Amati. He afterwards enlarged his model and adopted a flatter patter i,
and arrived at the greatest perfection about 1700; from that period to
1725 everything bore the impress of the great master. He excelled at that
time all who had gone before him in the accuracy with which all the parts
were adjubted in harmonious relation, or who have since attempted the
difficult task of vieing with him. M. Fetis insists that the violins of Stra-
diuarius were as good and fine in quality of tone when made as they arc
now, contrary to the fact that time and use are necessary to develop them.

STRADIUARIUS, HOMOBONO, Cremona, son of Antonius ; made under
the direction of his father, signed ” Sub disciplina A. Stradiuarius.”

STRADIUARIUS, FRANCISCO, Cremona, another son of Antonius, signed
the same.

STRAUBE, Berlin, 1770.

SURSANO, SPIRITUS, Coni, 1764.

T

TAYLOR, London, 1770 to 1820.

TECHLER, DAVID, about 1706. He made some beautiful and excellent

instruments.

TENZEL, No particulars.

TEODITI, JEROME, Rome, 1750.
TESTATOR, IL VECCHIO, Milan, about 1520.

TERRESIO, An Italian, a most eminent judge of instruments.

TESTORE, CARLO GUISEPPE, Cremona, about 1700. This artist made

some very good instruments after the Guarnerius pattern.
TESTORE, CARLO ANTONIO, Milan, i7ioto 1730.
TESTORE, PAOLO ANTONIO, Milan, 1720 to 1740.
THOROWGOOD, HENRY, London, i8th century.

TOBIN, London, 1800 to 1836.

TONINI, FELICE, Bologna.

TONINI, ANTONIO, Bologna.

TONINI, CARLO, Bologna.

TONINI, GUIDO, Bologna.

TONONI, CARLO, Venezia, 1699.

TONONI, GIOVANNI, Venezia, 1699. The instruments of this maker are

worthy of praise. They are very scarce.

32 Dictionary of Violin Makers.

TORINO, London.

TORTOBELLO, Rome, 1680.
TRUNCO, Cremona, 1660.

u

URQUART, THOMAS, London, 1650.

V

VALLER, Marseille, 1683.

VERON, Paris, about 1725.

VIARD, NICHOLAS, Versailles, about 1730.
VIBRECHT, GYSBERT, Amsterdam, 1707.
VETTRINI, Brescia, old and very handsome,
VIMERCATI, PAULO, Venezia, 1700.
VOGEL, WOLFGANG, Nuremberg.
VUILLAUME, JEAN, 1700 to 1740.

VUILLAUME, JEAN BAPTISTE, Paris. Celebrated as a Violin and bow
maker, and for his copies of the Cremonese instrument.

w

WAGNER, JOSEPH, Constance, 1733.

WAMSLEY, PETER, London, 1727.

WEAVER, SAMUEL, London.

WEISS, JACOB, Salzburg, 1761.

WENGER. GREGORIO FERDINAND, Salzburg, 1761.

WEYMANN, CORNELIUS, Amsterdam, 1682.

WIGHTMAN, GEORGE, 1761.

WITHALM, LEOPOLD, Nuremberg, 1765 to 1788. Finely made and very

closely resemble Steiner.
WITHERS, EDWARD, now living.^
WISE, C, London, 1656.

WORNUM, London, 1794.

WRIGHT. DANIEL, London, 1745.

Y

YOUNGE, JOHN, London, 1724.

z

ZANETTO, PEREGRINO, Brescia, 1540.
ZANTI, ALESSANDRO, Mantua, 1770. •
ZANOLLI.

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