Music Of Latin America

Music Of Latin America

PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION

This survey was first published in 1942 as Volume III, No. 3 of the series on Literature, Art and
Music of the Club and Study Series distributed by the Counselor’s Office of the Pan American Union. Al-
bert T. Luper, then of the Department of Music of the University of Texas, had been commissioned to pre-
pare it, but after submitting the first draft he enlisted in the United States Navy for the duration of the
war. Using Mr, Luper ‘s draft as a basis, excerpts from books, articles and reports by William Berrien,
Gilbert Chase, Evans Clark, Harold Courlander, Carleton Sprague Smith and, especially, Gustavo Duran
were freely incorporated by the Music Division (now, Division of Music and Visual Arts) in rounding out a
compilation that proved useful for a number of years.

The present revision, besides reporting some significant events of the ten years 1942- 1952, contains
a substantial list of references in the English language, designed to supplant Music Series No. 13, “Selec-
tive List of References in English on Latin American Music. n Answers to the questions most often asked
may be found by consulting works in this list,

What Latin American music can I buy in the United States and where? (See title no. 70. )
How can I find out something about Latin American composers ? (See title no. 63. )

What are the principal types of songs and dances of Latin America and what records of their
music are purchasable in the United States? (See title no. 21. )

Where can I get materials for an entertainment or pageant upon a Latin American theme?
(See title no. 71.)

Where can I find current Latin American “hits” listed? (See title no. 49. )
Where can I get copies of the national anthems of the American Republics?
A selective list of albums of phonograph records currently available will be found on pages 54 to 57.

For more extended reading by those who can read Spanish, the most comprehensive bibliography is
Gilbert Chase’s “Guide to Latin American Music, If published in 1945 by the Music Division of the Library
of Congress but now exhausted. Copies can be consulted in any large library and can be borrowed through
the Inter-Library Loan Service. Some libraries have on their shelves the “Handbook of Latin American
Studies, ” prepared by the Hispanic Foundation of the Library of Congress and published annually, 1935-
1947, by the Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, and from 1948, by the University of
Florida Press, Gainesville, Florida, each volume of which contains a music section (excepting only Vol.
1, 1935 and Vol. IV, 1938) listing significant publications of each year.

Any attempt to deal in a brief survey with the music of the peoples inhabiting the vast areas of Mexico,
Central and South America and the Antilles over a period of four and a half centuries must present short-
comings of whose presence the unwary should be duly warned. In touching only salient points, much
equally important detail must be ignored. In spite of the common bonds of language and colonial back-
ground, even the Spanish -speaking nations of the Americas differ in ethnic make-up, geography, climate
and many other respects. Nothing is “typically Latin American. lf In one country Indian music has per-
sisted; in another, it is practically obliterated; in some, African traditions are strong; in others they
have never been current. Today, folk and popular music flourish vigorously side by side with the concert
or fine art of music in most of the countries of the new world, but in no two in precisely the same relation-
ship. Thus, the problem of elimination has been ever present in the preparation of this survey, which
should be considered merely an introduction to the subject. Furthermore, data relative to some of the

most important phases, such as the history of folk and popular idioms, are scanty at best and sometimes
entirely lacking, as is also the case for the parallel idioms in the United States and Canada. The over-all
account of music in any single region is still to be written.

Washington D. C. , July, 1953

Division of Music and Visual Arts
Mixtec Teponaztli
Pre-Columbian wooden drum of Mexico

Araucanian Kidtrum
Kettledrum of the Araucanian Indians of Chile
I. ON PRE-COLUMBIAN MUSIC

Although not even a single piece of pre-Columbian music has been preserved in notational form, we
know that music was an integral part of the social and religious life of the Maya, Aztec, and Inca cul-
tures – the three great civilizations that flourished in the new world before the Europeans came.

The Maya Indians, living in the lowlands of Central America during the first five centuries A. D. ,
were a comparatively peaceful people. They worshipped the beneficent gods and propitiated the evil ones
with music and dancing. The gods of the chase, of water, of war, and many others had their appropriate
ceremonies. The ritual of sacrifice to the Rain God was especially important. By the time Cortes
reached Mexico in 1519, the cities had fallen into political chaos, increased by war, pestilence, and dis-
aster.

The Aztecs, too, cultivated music and dancing for ceremonial and ritual occasions. Entertainers,
performing for the Emperor Montezuma, are said to have danced to the piping of reed flutes and the rattle
of gourds. Toribio Motolima, a 16th century Spanish historian, reports, “Each chief had a chapel in his
house with its singers and composers of dances and songs. ” He was astonished at the perfection of the
Aztec dances and comments: “The dancers’ feet were as rhythmically concerted as those of skillful danc-
ers of Spain; what one dancer did with the right foot and the left, so did all of them simultaneously and to
the perfect rhythm of the music. M

Warriors sang of their heroic deeds, hunters recounted their adventures of the chase in song, and
love adventures’ were retold in “songs of love and endearment. ”

Attempts to reconstruct Aztec music are based chiefly on the actual musical instruments that have
come down to us, some in such a goo.d .state of preservation that sounds can be produced on them even to-
day. There were apparently six chief Aztec instruments:

* The tlapitzalli*, made of baked clay,- was sometimes shaped like a flute, sometimes like an ocarina.
The atecocolli tepuzquiquiztli, a conch shell trumpet.

The ayacachtli was fashioned from a hollow bone filled with pebbles and gave a sonorous noise when
shaken, like the well-known maracas.

The teponaztli, a percussion instrument, was (and still is) made from a cylindrical piece of wood. It
had openings in the form of an H, two cut lengthwise and one crosswise, which the player struck with two
mallets.

The huehuetl was made of a hollowed-out tree trunk. The smaller end, irregularly cut, was fastened
in the ground, and the larger end was covered with a skin parchment tightened by drying near the fire.
Huehuetls of different sizes are still in existence. The larger ones, used to call warriors together, could
be heard for miles.

The omitzicahuastli, a sort of grater, was made of bone, generally a femur. Along its length were
incisions which produced a sound similar to that of a Cuban gtiiro or Brazilian reco-reco when scraped
with a hard object.

The scales of some pre- conquest instruments appear to be pentatonic, but some of the flutes produce
a scale with diatonic and chromatic intervals, irregularly arranged. Some notion of the actual music may

* See hints on pronunciation on page 41.

be formed from a study of the music of present-day Indians, such as the Yaqui and Seri, who have kept a-
loof from alien influence. It must be remembered, however, that these notions are inferences and do not
constitute a knowledge of the actual pre-Columbian music of Mexico.

When Pizarro reached Peru in 1531, he found a powerful and highly civilized empire – the Inca – rul-
ing a vast region that stretched from northern Ecuador to central Chile. Like the Mayas and the Aztecs
farther north, people of this empire, the Quechua and Aymara Indians, gave song and dance a prominent
place in their rituals. Music accompanied all their festivities, and a particular form of song belonged to
each – the Feast of the Sun, the Great Feast, the celebrations following sowing and harvest. It is signifi-
cant that the word taqui was used for both song and dance. Apparently the^two were so closely connected
that one word sufficed.

As is the case with the music of the other pre-Columbian cultures, little is known about the music of
the Inca Empire. No system of musical notation was invented and the conquerors did not use European
notation for recording melodies. Early travelers and chroniclers wrote of dances and instruments and
tried to describe how the music sounded, but the information is not precise since they were not trained
observers and merely set down their observations about music along with many other items. Most of our
knowledge of this music is gleaned from the comparative study of archeological finds and the instruments
of indigenous groups still living in sections remote from outside influence. Even today, these Indians
sing and play a music totally different from that of their more urban neighbors and some of their instru-
ments are unlike any brought to America from the old world.

The Quechua and Aymara flute (quena) was perhaps the most perfect musical instrument fashioned in
the western world prior to the Conquest. One well-preserved specimen that has come down to us is made
from the leg bone of the llama. It has a V-shaped mouthpiece cut in beveled fashion, and its five holes
correspond to the tones of a pentatonic scale. Other instruments are the ayariche or ocarina; the hayllai-
quipac, or conch-shell trumpet; the ayacastlis, or gourd rattle; the tifia , a small drum with two hides;
and the antaras, or pipes of Pan.

Among the many types of songs mentioned by the first Spanish chroniclers were liturgical and cere-
monial songs, love songs, dances, pastorals, farewell rounds, epics celebrating war deeds. Garcilaso
de la Vega (known as “The Inca 11 ) (1539-1616) gives an illuminating account of the music in his Comenta-
rios Reales. “Each song had its own peculiar melody by which it was recognized and there could not be
two songs with the same tune. It was because of this that the young lover could, -when making music at
night with his flute, tell his lady and all the world of his happiness or unhappiness according to the favor
or disfavor which she bestowed upon him. ” At another place we read: “A Spaniard met late one night in
Cuzco an Indian maiden whom he knew. On trying to persuade her to accompany him, he was answered by
the maiden, ‘Setter, allow me to go whither I will, for know you must that the flute you hear in yon thicket
is calling me with passion and tenderness – it constrains me to go thither. Leave me, I beseech you, for
love s^reps me on, that I may be his bride and he my spouse. ‘”

In addition to these three great civilizations – the Maya, Aztec, and Inca – the Chibchas of Colombia
and Venezuela, the tribes of the Amazon Valley, and those of the Paraguay and Plata regions had also
attained some musical development in pre-Columbian times. Their music was, however, much more
rudimentary than that described above. The Chibchas had some musical instruments and it is known that
their religious ceremonies were accompanied by music. Instruments that have survived point to the exist-
ence of a pentatonic scale, but nothing remains from whiclfi to reconstruct their melodies.

Double whistling jars of
the Mochican Indians of Peru
II. THE COLONIAL PERIOD

After the conquest, Spain and Portugal began to colonize their new possessions in the Americas.
The Colonial Period is the term generally applied to the three hundred years (roughly the 16th, 17th, and
18th centuries) during which the Europeans established themselves in Latin America. The colonists
brought with them not only their own political and religious traditions, but their social and cultural ones
as well. But from the very beginning of colonization indigenous culture began to exert influence on the
arts of the Spanish and Portuguese colonists.

In 1523, Pedro de Gante, a Franciscan lay priest born in Flanders and educated at the University of
Louvain, founded a school of music for the natives in Texcoco, near the City of Mexico. Beginning with
the copying of music from books used in the church services, Gante and other Franciscans taught the
Indians to sing the Gregorian chant, and later to play and even make various instruments.

Pantomine and mimicry were used to offset the difficulty created by the lack of a common language.
The auto, a religious play then popular in Europe, was easily adapted by the Church to the needs of the
Indians. Two forms developed in Mexico – that of the Spaniards and that intended for the Indians. The
latter was much simpler and in general was confined to a portrayal of Biblical stories.

Arthur L. Campa writes: “The first one of these Indian autos to be given in the New World was the
one of Adam and Eve, enacted in Mexico City in 1532. The neophytes, who took to pageantry and ritual
very readily, were not at all displeased with this open-air presentation of the fall of man, and responded
so well that the missionaries themselves were astounded at the realism exhibited in its presentation.
Motolinia has left a memorable description of this auto. ”

This activity was typical of what happened in Brazil, Peru, Paraguay, Argentina, and elsewhere –
including California as late as the 18th century. The Church was quick to utilize the Indians’ natural love
of music to convert them to Catholicism, and the Indians were trained to provide music for the Church
services. In Mexico, music schools multiplied so rapidly that there were twenty-five large ones and
many small ones by 1575. Practically every village served by missionaries had a school at which the
Indians were taught to sing for the church services. The Jesuit, Dominican, Augustine, Carmelite,
Franciscan, and Benedictine Orders gave training in religious music and introduced the plain song. The
missionaries sought to explain the principles of their religion to the Indians through songs which they
translated into various Indian dialects.

This teaching bore fruit. Not only were great numbers of the Indians converted to Catholicism, but
their choral singing attained a high degree of excellence. Motolinia speaks of !l an Indian cantor of the
vicinity of Tlaxcala, Mexico, who composed an original mass which many Spanish singers had heard and
pronounced lacking in nothing, although it was not the work of a genius. ”

The records of the Jesuit missions in Paraguay tell of a Guarani Indian, Julian Atirahu, who composed
a rondo and a minuet, which were to be executed by two persons “facing each other, because, when the
piece ends, the accompaniment begins in reverse. n

The Jesuits in Brazil introduced autos which were played during the Christmas season and which
deeply influenced the later popular music of the nation. Among the important figures in Brazil during the
early days of the Colonial Period was the Jesuit priest Jose’ de Anchieta, who was sent to teach the Indians
in Piratininga in the present state of Sao Paulo in 1554. Anchieta compiled grammars and lexicons, and
wrote hymns and autos in Portuguese, Spanish, and the native tongue. When autos on the birth of Christ
(a favorite theme) were produced, Christmas carols sung by the Portuguese and Spaniards were introduced
In the Plata River region, the Belgian Jesuit Luis Berger was active. He is described as a “musician and
dancer, and friend of teaching the Indians to play bowed lutes, with which he has converted many infidels. n

Primitive Music of Panama and Chile

t^->t^aL/^^

*Kalis Igala”

(La reparticion del pescado). Canto de los Indies Cunas de San Bias, Panama. Tornado de “TradicJones y
Cantares de Panama”, de Narciso Garay.

Hfle^ AUCMXJU^ /)^^0//^^
MtoWW^/HM^ /W/WW^/IM^
mu^^ jdafo

. – * ^^ …. .^^^’^ .’ .1

^f^^
“LAUMEN” (Hermana) Canto araucano. Transcrfto de un disco fonografico VICTOR.
Reproduced from Boletin Latinoamericano de Musica, Vol. 4, 1938

European musicians in the new world served as choirmasters, organists, and teachers during the en-
tire Colonial Period. Large consignments of the best European church music and of works on musical
theory were brought from abroad and placed in the archives of the principal cathedrals. Some idea of the
wealth of material deposited in cathedrals may be gained from the recent survey by Steven Barwick of the
Archives of the Cathedrals of Mexico City, Puebla, and Oaxaca. Besides works of Palestrina (Italian),
Victoria and Cabezon (Spanish), and Duarte Lobo (Portuguese), they contain manuscripts of composers
resident in Mexico during the 16th and 17th centuries, including Fernando Franco (d. 1585), Pedro Ber-
mudes (c. 1603), Francisco Lopez (d. 1647). In addition to the music imported by the Church, many lay-
men owned fine collections.

European musical instruments were brought over by the colonists and rapidly adopted by the natives.
Some magnificent pipe organs are still to be seen in large churches throughout Central and South America.
The Spaniards introduced the guitar, the mandolin, the psaltery, the harp and, later on, the violin; the
Portuguese also introduced the guitar and the cavaquinho, a smaller kind of guitar. The Indians adopted
these instruments and began to construct similar ones of good quality. In the case of the harp, psaltery,
and violin, they limited themselves to copying the models without modification. But for other instruments,
notably the guitar, they sometimes changed the number and tuning of the strings, or substituted an arma-
dillo shell for the sounding box, thus changing the tonal quality of the original instrument.

The oldest surviving music book issued in America was published in Mexico City in 1556; it was an
Ordinarium containing, in Gregorian notation, the chants used in the Ordinary of the Mass. (It is interest-
ing to note that this book appeared nearly a century and a half before New England’s Bay Psalm Book was
printed in an edition with music. ) Before the close of the century, nine other books with music had ap-
peared in the Spanish colonies, and in 1604 a book of music for Holy Week was issued, Liber in quo qua-
tuor passiones Christi Domini continentur, by the Mexican Juan Navarro.

While most of the music in the Spanish and Portuguese colonies was produced for and supported by the
Church, secular music was by no means neglected. According to many accounts, there were teachers of
dancing and instrumental music even in the earliest days of colonization. A dancing school was established
in Mexico City in 1526 by a man named Ortiz, one narrative states; and another (1608) mentions a fee of
50 pesos paid to the dancing teacher of the daughter of a prominent Argentine colonist.

Dancing and singing were enjoyed by all classes and ballad singing was especially popular – witness
the innumerable collections of traditional romances (ballads) of the Iberian peninsula that have been gath-
ered by folklorists in all Latin American countries. Just as in the Anglo-American regions, old ballads
of known history dating from Elizabethan times and before are found widespread, so in Latin America the
romances of the Moorish wars are still handed down, frequently in dramatic performances acted and sung
by predominantly Indian communities.

In addition to these popular modes of expression, the aristocracy attached to the various vice- regal
courts played, and danced to, the favorite contemporary court music of Europe, and in the more sophisti-
cated centers musicians imported and performed secular music -by leading European composers.

The theater, too, stimulated interest in music. During the 16th and 17th centuries, plays by Calderon
and other Spanish dramatists were given with incidental music written by Spanish and Colonial composers.
Later on, the tonadilla escenica (short popular comedies with singing and incidental music) used and kept
alive many traditional Spanish tunes and rhythms.

According to a document in the Archives of the Municipality of Caracas, capital of Venezuela, the
Municipality in 1591 agreed to grant a subsidy to a certain school teacher, Luis Cardenas, to establish a
school in which instruction in plain chant was to be included. A hundred years later, the statutes of the
Colegio Seminar io of Caracas provided that a class in plain chant be given daily at 10 o’clock; and in 1725,
when the University of Santiago de Leon was established in the capital, a chair of music was created with
an annual endowment of 150 dollars. In this way professional music activities were kept alive during the
17th and 18th centuries, in spite of the relative isolation of the Colony. The University, the Catholic
Seminary, and above all the Church, with its rites in which music has such an important role, sustained
the interest in formal music.

Father Pedro Palacios y So jo had a profound influence on Venezuelan music in the second half of the
18th century. .When he returned from a trip to Madrid and Rome in 1770, he brought back numerous works
of the greatest European composers of that time – Handel, Pergolese, and Haydn – and also a text of mu-
sic theory, string instruments, and probably the first complete set of woodwind instruments seen in
Venezuela. He established an academy of music at his hacienda at Chacao, and placed it under the direc-
tion of Juan Manuel Olivares, one of the most eminent Venezuelan composers at that time. From this
academy there emerged a group of composers who, it may be said, created an upsurge of music in the
country. Among them were Lino Gallardo, Juan Jose” Landaeta, and Jose’ Angel Lamas. Because of spir-
itual depth, vigor of expression, and competence of musicianship, Lamas must be recognized as one of
the greatest composers Venezuela. has produced. Jose Francisco Velazquez, Jose Antonio Caro de Boesi,
and Juan Manuel Olivares wrote a great number of masses and motets. Although conditions were not fa-
vorable for the development of profane works, a good number were written; they were, however, inferior
in quality to the religious works.

Thus music in Venezuela, although it followed European models closely, subtly assumed the charac-
teristics of its own environment, though the best part of it shows the influence of the Italian School of the
period, particularly of Pergolese and Alessandro Scarlatti.

The most eminent Mexican composers of the later Colonial Period were Antonio de Salazar ( Choir-
master of the Cathedral of Mexico, 1685 – 1715) and Manuel Zumaya, author of the opera La Partenope,
which was performed in Mexico City in 1711, according to Saldfvar; he also wrote motets and other choral
works. Another opera by an unknown composer^ called La Dicha en el Precipicio,was also presented in
Mexico City in the first part of the 18th century.

Francisco Moratilla was the author of villancicos (Christmas carols), some of which are master-
pieces comparable to the best tonadillas (songs) of the day. Among other 18th century Mexican composers
were Antonio Redil and Antonio Sarrier, whose work show the influence of the contemporary Viennese and
Italian schools.

In Colombia, the first musical figure of whom we have record is the Jesuit Jose Dadey (1574-1660),
who taught the Indians the rudiments of music and brought from Spain violins and other instruments.

The most important Colombian composer of the Colonial Period was the priest Juan de Herrera y
Chumacero, choirmaster of the Cathedral at Bogota. He composed psalms, a Requiem Mass, villancicos,
and other choral works. Among other composers of this period were Juan de Dios Torres, a pupil of
Herrera, and Brother Juan Pulgar (1763-1827), who was born in Bogota and was choirmaster of the
Cathedral during the last years of his life. There were also some other less important composers, whose
works are in the Archives of the Bogota Cathedral,

From about 1710, and continuing throughout the 18th century, a remarkable development of profes-
sional mui 4 c took place in the then pioneer state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Not only were works of the best
European masters studied and played, but original pieces by local composers were written in professional-
looking music handwriting.

The fine arts in Brazil were much stimulated when the Portuguese ruling family, fleeing from
Napoleon’s army, came to Rio de Janeiro in 1808. The Prince Regent, later King John VI, was a lover of
music and the other arts, and a generous patron. Among the European musicians who worked in Rio de
Janeiro were the composer Sigismund Neukomm, a friend and pupil of Haydn, and Marcos Portugal, noted
Portuguese opera composer, who served as choirmaster and opera director in the Brazilian capital. The
Prince Regent gave especial recognition to Father Jose Mauricio Nunes Garcia (1767-1830) who, together
with the Venezuelan Lamas, was one of the outstanding Latin American composers of the Colonial Period.
Father Nunes Garcia, a Brazilian priest of mixed blood, was primarily a composer of church music; his
Requiem is well known and his Mass in B flat is probably his most important work. He also wrote a con-
siderable number of secular works, including the opera Le Due Gemelle (The Two Twins).

To make consideration of music during the Colonial Period complete, mention should be made of the
Negro element which was to play an important part in the later development of Latin American music. In

the 16th century, Spain introduced African slaves into the Caribbean Islands and Portugal sent Negroes to
Brazil. Thus the seeds were sown for what was to become one of the most important strains in contempo-
rary Latin American music.

HuayHo
Bolivian Dance

Tanbor ito
Panamanian Dance

III. THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

The Latin American countries achieved independence during the early decades of the 19th century.
This shift in status from political dependency, the attendant sociological changes, and above all the
Church ! s relinquishment of leadership in the field of music, at -first affected the progress of the fine art
of music adversely. In all probability, popular music was stimulated, but no definite account of this form
can be given, for early records are meagre.

However, several movements which had their inception during these years bore fruit in the second
half of the century. Private academies were opened and, though many of them were short-lived, they in-
dicated an increasing interest in music. Instruction was no longer confined to the aristocracy and to the
Church, but was becoming available to the middle classes. This led to the establishment of conserva-
tories of a more permanent character, in some cases supported by the national governments. Another
hopeful sign was the organization of many music societies and Sociedades Filar monic as, chiefly groups of
music enthusiasts who banded together to play, sing, and sponsor public performances.

Many orchestral groups, also generally short-lived, were started in the 19th century. A typical pro-
gram included an overture from an Italian opera, one or two Italian arias sung by leading vocalists of the
community, perhaps a duet, a rhapsody on popular themes of the country played on the pianoforte by the
locality’s principal pianist-composer – who was probably also the conductor of the orchestra – and finally
another Italian overture. (This type of program was also common in the United States during the century. )
As the standard of taste and performance improved, the program gradually included single movements
from Haydn or Beethoven symphonies, until finally it was possible to play an entire symphony at a concert*

Another activity destined to have a great effect on the music life of Latin American countries was reg-
ular operatic productions. Occasional performances of opera had taken place during the Colonial Period,
but not until 1826-27, when Manuel Garcia visited Mexico with his opera company, were operas given with
any degree of regularity. The first c’omplete opera performed in Buenos Aires was probably Rossini’s
Barber of Seville, which was presented in 1825, under the direction of the Italian violinist Massoni, for-
merly the first violinist of the Rio de Janeiro opera orchestra, and later the conductor of both opera and
orchestral groups in Chile and Argentina. The number of operatic offerings, almost all by Italian com-
panies, increased rapidly and by 1854 as many as thirty different operas by French and Italian composers
were presented in Buenos Aires. A similar expansion in the operatic field took place throughout South
America and in Mexico. Some of the productions were of a high calibre, but there were also many second-
and third-rate traveling companies which failed to maintain professional standards of execution and inter-
pretation.

Another element in the musical life of the 19th century in Latin America – partly a reflection of simi-
lar conditions in Europe – was the enormous production of salon music for the piano. As Otto Mayer –
Serra points out in his Panorama de la Musica Mexicana, the composer, deprived of the financial support
of the aristocracy, was compelled to write music that would interest his bourgeois customers whose
daughters were his piano pupils. (A similar trend appeared in the United States after the Civil War. ) A
great amount of pseudo- romantic parlor music was written, chiefly Viennese waltzes, all very much alike
in length as well as in harmonic and melodic scheme. The popularity of piano music of this type accounted
in part for the great success in Latin America of the American pianist and composer Louis Moreau
Gottschalk, a favorite of the Argentines and Brazilians, who died at Rio de Janeiro in 1869.

With the advent of the concert hall and the increased development of piano technique, salon music was
superseded to some extent by piano pieces replete with pyrotechnical elaborations on well-known themes
of the country. In Europe, too, compositions for the piano followed this course, largely for the same rea-
sons. Virtuosi wrote these pieces and played them on tours. Other composers imitated the romantic
style of many European writers, writing waltzes, mazurkas, and nocturneb with typical Chopinesque melo-
dies and figurations.

8

But not all Latin American concert music in the 19th century was so ephemeral. There were musi-
cians and music lovers who held fast to the highest concepts of the art as they understood them, and who
worked incessantly to create a musical culture based on firm technical and artistic foundations. The crea-
tion of conservatories modeled along European lines gave impetus to the development and training of com-
posers, singers, and instrumentalists. In Brazil, Francisco Manuel da Silva, a pupil of Jose Maurfcio
Nunes Garcia and the composer of the Brazilian national anthem, founded the Conservatorio Nacional de
Musica at Rio de Janeiro in 1841. This institution has maintained an unbroken existence until the present
day, and is now the Escola Nacional de Musica of the University of Brazil. In Chile, the National Con-
servatory of Music was founded in 1850 and began functioning under government regulation the following
year. Some government support was also given to the National Conservatory of Mexico when it opened in
1868 as an activity of the Sociedad Filarmonica, founded two years earlier. In 1868, also, the Conserva-
tory of Caracas, Venezuela, was founded by Felipe Larrazabal. Other music schools, started in the later
decades of the 19th century and the early years of the 20th, helped to develop national schools of compos-
ers; for a long time, however, Latin American composers were strongly influenced by Italian lyricism and
by German and French romanticism.

One of the first Latin American composers to win fame abroad was the Brazilian Carlos Gomes (1836-
1896). Born in the State of Sao Paulo, he had his first music lessons under his father, a music teacher in
the town of Campinas. He then studied at the Conservatorio Nacional de Musica in Rio de Janeiro. His
first essays in the lyrico-dramatic field so impressed his teachers and the Emperor Dom Pedro II that he
was granted a stipend to continue his training in Italy, where he studied at the Conservatory of Milan for
four years. Gomes first attracted attention in Milan in 1870, with the staging of his opera^n Guarany,
based on a novel about Brazilian Indians by his compatriot Jose” de Alencar. Other triumphs followed:
Fosca and Condor in 1891. II Guarany, however, remains Gomes’ best-known work and still receives
occasional performances in the opera houses of Italy, Brazil, and Argentina. Gomes’ music was highly
praised by many of his European contemporaries, including Verdi, whose style the Brazilian used as a
model. Several overtures to his operas are performed in the United States by school and professional
groups.

Other Latin American composers, though they did not attain the world renown won by Gomes, were
nevertheless leaders in the musical life of their countries during the middle years of the 19th century.
Among them were Angel Montero (1839-1881), Felipe Larrazabal (1816-1873), and Federico Villena (b.
1835) in Venezuela; Elias Alvares Lobo, Henrique Alves de Mesquita, and Domingos Jose Ferreira in
Brazil; Dalmiro Costa in Uruguay; Amancio Alcorta and Francisco Hargreaves in Argentina; Jose Zapiola
(1807-1885), Isidora Zegers de Huneeus (1803-1869), and Aquinas Reid in Chile; Pedro Jimenez and Jose’
Bernardo Alcedo (1798-1878) in Peru; Manuel Maria Parraga, Nicolas Quevedo Rachedell (1803-1874) and
Jose’ Maria Ponce (1846-1882) in Colombia; and Aniceto Ortega (1823-1875), Tomas Leon (1826-1893), and
Melesio Morales (1838-1909) in Mexico.

Many noted concert artists toured the continent. Most frequently heard among the virtuosi from the
old, world and the new were pianists Henri Herz (Austria), Sigismund Thalberg (Switzerland), Alberto
Jonas (Spain), Eugene d 1 Albert (Scotland), L. M. Gottschalk (United States), Federico Guzman (Chile),
Ricardo Castro (Mexico), and Teresa Carrefio (Venezuela); the singers Angela Peralta (Mexico), Elisa
Biscaccianti (United States), Enrico Tamberlick (Italy), Anna Bishop (England), Manuel Garcia (Spain),
Francisco Tamagno (Italy), and Teresa and Giulio Rossi (Italy); the violinists Santiago Massoni (Italy), E.
C. Sivori (Italy), Henri Vieuxtemps (Belgium), Franz Coenen (Netherlands), Pablo Saras ate (Spain),
William V. Wallace (Scotland), and Brindis de Salas (Cuba); the ‘cellist Maximilian Bohrer (Germany); and
the dancers Rosa Expert and Maria Poutret.

As these and other artists introduced the more elaborate works of European masters and as more
Latin American musicians went abroad to finish their studies, the quality of work produced by Latin
American composers attained a higher level. Around 1900, the influence of Italian opera, though it still
persisted, began to abate somewhat, and New World compositions reflected French and Germanic ideas to
a great extent. In Brazil, Leopoldo Miguez (1850-1902), director of the Escola Nacional de Musica, com-
posed operas in the Wagner ian style and symphonic poems after Liszt. By the turn of the “century there
were many composers with good technical foundation which they used in writing works of merit.

The close of the 19th century also saw the first conscious efforts to break away from European
traditions and to create national musical idioms. There had been earlier attempts at nationalizing music,
such as the untasteful potpourris and fantasies on popular tunes of the salon music writers, and the liter-
ary nationalism of Carlos Gomes, of Brazil, Aniceto Ortega, of Mexico, and others who used libretti
based on native subjects but wrote music in the style of Rossini and Verdi. But as this new musical na-
tionalism developed, composers dipped more deeply into folk and popular themes, bringing to the knowl-
edge of concert audiences music which had been growing and developing through the years among the com-
mon people.

In this movement Brazil led the way, under the stimulus of the abolition of slavery and the change of
government to a Republic (1889). Following the example of Alberto Nepomuceno (1864-1920), the “father
of nationalism in Brazilian music, ” Brazilian composers began to use native melodic traits. Harmoniza-
tion and form, however, were still patterned after contemporary European styles. Nepomuceno ‘s works
include numerous songs and piano pieces in the popular idiom, the operas Abul and Artemis, and the or-
chestral works Prelude t Garatuja, Symphony in G minor, and Brazilian Suite (four movements: Alvora-
fi^I^ S erra Interm^dio, A Sesta na Rde, Batuque). Brazilian contemporaries of Nepomuceno wer”e
Henrique Oswald (1852- 193~1), Barrozo Netto (1881-1941), and Francisco Braga (1871-1944), who was well-
trained in the European tradition and taught many of the leading musicians of the present generation.

Argentine composers were also in the vanguard in using popular and national sources, especially in
the operatic field. The venerable Alberto Williams (1862-1952) based some of his music on native scenes,
utilizing local melodies and dances, although he wrote primarily in the European tradition. In more re-
cent works he borrowed devices from the French impressionist style. Williams had a most successful
career as educator as well as a composer; for many years he directed the Conservatorio de Music a in
Buenos Aires, which has over 100 branches throughout Argentina, and also issued a number of educational
music publications. Julian Aguirre (1869-1924) was a composer in small forms whose work reflected the
nationalist tendency.

One of the leading composers of the nationalist school in Cuba was Ignacio Cervantes (1847-1905), an
outstanding pianist whose Danzas Cubanas compare favorably with the best piano pieces of Grieg. He also
wrote a symphony in C minor and other works for orchestra.
Uruguayan Dance
Oil by the painter Pedro Figari

10

IV. CONTEMPORARY MUSIC

The foregoing survey gives some indication of how varied are the elements that have gone into the
making of present day Latin American music.

Succeeding waves of European colonists brought to the new world the folk and popular songs of their
mother countries, the ritual music of the Catholic Church and, increasingly, the music of symphonic or-
chestra, opera house, and recital hall. Naturally, the folk, popular, and religious music spread first and
most widely, while cultivation of the cosmopolitan style of concert music centered later in the large urban
areas and reached out only where the urban influence was fairly strong.

Wherever the Negro and Indian populations were dominated by the European cultures, they adopted
European traditions. But to the extent that they maintained group identity, Negro and Indian elements
modified the music in these traditions. This new development has modified, in turn, the music of the
cosmopolitan centers and has stimulated the formation of national “schools” and “styles. ” Discovery, in
our own day, of some Negro and Indian groups showing little or no European influence has further stimu-
lated an intellectual interest in Negro and Indian music, and this interest has encouraged still further na-
tionalistic trends.

Folk, popular, and fine-art or concert music all depend upon traditions handed down from generation
to generation. But whereas folk music relies primarily upon oral tradition, fine-art music necessitates
use of written tradition. Besides this technical difference, the social function of each is quite different.
Popular music falls between these two, sometimes belonging to oral tradition, sometimes to written, or
first to one and then to the other. Elaborate forms of popular music, especially those involving large fi-
nancial outlay protected by copyright and performance right, are in reality a kind of concert music. The
less elaborate forms, in spite of the fact that they are often launched in copyright form, are often sung and
played “by ear” by the people and so filter back into the folk tradition.

There is great activity in folk and popular music. “Name bands” play hits and near-hits in thousands
of cafes and night-clubs, over a wide network of radio stations and through hundreds of thousands of phono-
graph records. And millions of people sing, as part of their daily life, the myriad folk songs that belong
especially to them. The fine art of music likewise finds expression through many media – concerts by
symphony orchestras, outstanding performers, and to a lesser extent, chamber music groups; opera;
radio broadcasts; choral and band offerings; and recitals. Influencing this expression are the music
schools and conservatories, and the published music and books in this field. Obviously, the amount and
quality of these activities vary from country to country and from one year to another.

Among the Latin American* soloists who have become internationally known in recent years are the
singers Delia Rigal (Argentina); Bidu SaySo, Elsie Houston, and Olga Coelho (Brazil); Carlos Morelli and
Ramon Vinay (Chile); Irma Gonzalez (Mexico); Graciela Rivera (Puerto Rico); and Emma Otero (Cuba); the
instrumentalists Claudio Arrau, Rosita Renard (1894-1949), Alfonso Montecino, and Arnaldo Tapia Caba-
Hero (Chile); Guiomar Novaes, Arnaldo Estrella, Magdalena Tagliaferro, and Yara Bernette (Brazil);
M&risa Regules and Ricardo and Adolfo Odnoposoff (Argentina); Jorge Eolet and Angel Reyes (Cuba); Al-
fredo He Saint-Malo (Panama); Jesus Maria Sanroma (Puerto Rico); and Emma Stopello (Venezuela). Con-
ductors who are similarly famous are Armando Carvajal and Victor Tevah (Chile), Juan Jose Castro
(Argentina), Carlos Chavez (Mexico), Heitor Villa-Lobos, Francisco Mignoue and Elea^ar de Carvaiho
(Brazil), Alberto Bolet (Cuba), Vicente Emilio Sojoj[Venezuela), and Guillermo Espinosa (Colombia).

Increased interchange of visits by musicians between the Americas, encouraged by all the republics in
harmony with the Good Neighbor policy, has given a new significance to the role of music in the life of the
western hemisphere. Thus, cut off by the war from accustomed dependence upon Europe and stimulated by
the arrival of a large number of excellent musicians who found refuge from persecution in Europe, the

11

countries of the new world – and this holds for the United States as well as Latin America – broke almost
the last ties binding them to a colonial status, and hopefully embark upon a musical culture with distinct
new world characteristics. But with the end of the war, and the sudden cessation of subsidy from the
United States government for inter-American music exchange, both Latin- and Anglo- America resumed
their old ties with Europe. Not all the benefits of the war-honeymoon were lost, however, for private
initiative, directed both northwards and southwards, is slowly building firm relations among the
Americas in the field of music.

Contemporary composition in Latin America shows three main trends, or (to put it differently) the
composers may be placed in three general groups. In the first are those who, following in the footsteps of
the early nationalists, strive to express a national feeling while employing the style of late 19th century
romanticism or early 20th century impressionism. In the second and most influential group are the com-
posers who are seeking to assimilate their national folklore and at the same time express their own indivi-
duality. They are in sympathy with the cosmopolitan current of international music and often try to extend
the scope of their work by creating new musical forms based on folk idioms. In the third group are those
who profess little sympathy for either the national or the folklore movements; their music is conceived
along more experimental lines. Here are the modern atonalists, as well as those who would extend the
theoretical limits of music by devising new scales and instruments with fractional tones.

It will readily be appreciated that no general statements can serve to describe present-day music in
Latin America as a whole. Though there is often a similarity between the music of countries which are
geographically close or have a somewhat common ethnic make-up or historical background, each nation
must be considered separately. We propose, therefore, to take the reader on a tour, beginning in Mexico,
proceeding southward through Central America, down the western coast of South America, and thence
north again on the eastern coast to the West Indies. (For the fine art of music, because of the great
amount and variety of the activities, it seems best chiefly to confine ourselves in this comparatively brief
survey to the work of the composers. )

Moderate
(Folk Song of Guatemala)

VAMOS A LA MAR

Version de Ismael Mendez-Zebadua

v
i
1. Va-xnos a la
mar, tu
m,
tu
m,
a co-mer pes –
2. Va-mos a la
mar, tu
m,
tu
m,
a co-mer pes –
*ji<Ag j >
-J- ?
!^_5 1
ca – do, turn,
ca – do, t

tu

bo – ca co – lo
fri-ti-toy a

ra – da,
sa – do,

turn,
turn

i At #..

tu
tu
m,
m,
r~f

fri- ti-tojy a –
en sar-te’n de
J J i

sa – do, tt
pa. la, t
m,
m,
tB

tu
m.
m.
L^J

12

A. THE MUSIC OF TODAY IN MEXICO AND CENTRAL AMERICA

Mexico

The proximity of the two countries, together with the frequent appearance in the United States of the
eminent Mexican composer -conductor Carlos Chavez, has made the United States more familiar with
Mexican music than with that of other Latin American nations.

The music of Mexico may be compared to its many baroque cathedrals and churches. Plans and eleva-
tions were Spanish in design, but the construction itself was the work of the natives and they left their
stamp on every element of the buildings. So with folk and popular music, the framework is mainly Spanish
in tonality and mode, and in the structure of its melody, harmony, and meter; but the melodic inflection
and ornamentation and the rhythmic combinations show definite Indian influence.

Considerable interest has appeared in recent years in the primitive and folk music and dances of
Mexico. The Library of Congress has released a fine album of the music of the most primitive Indian
triDes selected from the collection made under sponsorship of the Inter -Am eric an Indian Institute by
Henrietta Yurchenko. Several commercial albums of Northern Mexican Indian music are available in mu-
sic stores. The National Institute of Fine Arts has begun systematic collection of the many types of songs
and dances; only a few can be described here. (For a fuller discussion of the folk and popular music of
Mexico and the other Latin American countries, the reader is referred to Recordings of Latin American
Songs and Dances, An Annotated Selected List of Popular and Folk Music, by Gustavo Duran, published as
Music Series No. 3~942, by the Music Division of the Pan American Union, Washington, D. C. A second
revised edition by Gilbert Chase appeared in 1950. )

The corrido is a narrative folk-popular ballad telling of the exploits of national or local heroes, the
latest crime, flood, or any other outstanding event. As with all ballads, the music’s main function is to
carry the text and enhance its meaning. The melodic phrase is repeated for each stanza, and instrumental
interludes of equal or varying length are common. The singers may be accompanied by one or more gui-
tars and harps, or by an ensemble (mariachi) of violins, harp, guitars, and guitarrones (larger guitars).
The huapango, a dance with fast and complicated steps for two people or groups of pairs, has cross-
rhythms that are characteristic of Mexican music. One instrument plays in 2/4 meter, another in 3/4
meter, and a third in 6/8 meter – a combination that results in a dazzling and unique musical texture.

In the field of the fine art of music, Manuel M. Ponce (1882-1948), known the world over as the com-
poser of Estrellita, initiated the nationalist movement in Mexican music in 1912 at a memorable concert
in the Arbeu Theatre, Mexico City; the program included piano compositions and songs based upon popular
Mexican airs and dances. Ponce’s style, stemming from European 19th century romanticism, was well-
adapted to ornamentation by the characteristic melodic turns and rhythmic sequences of Mexican music.
Among his compositions are Chapultepec (triptych for orchestra), the symphonic divertimento Ferial (a
holiday scene impression), a piano concerto, a concerto for guitar and orchestra written for the Spanish
guitarist Andres Segovia, a duo for violin and viola, a string quartet, a violin and piano sonata. (A com-
plete list of the works of Manuel M. Ponce can be found in the Bo let in de Musica y Artes Visuales, pub-
lished by the Pan American Union, No. 25-26, February-March, 19527]”

Of the same generation as Ponce are Jose Rolon (1883-1945) and Candelario Huizar (b. 1889). Rolon
has developed a pronounced tendency toward linear writing and decided contrasts in instrumental tone col-
ors which are oftentimes derived from typical regional instrumental combinations. Huizar’s work is
strongly grounded in the romantic tradition, and he writes in the classic symphonic molds. He is almost
the only Mexican composer who still writes symphonies on a grand scale.

13

Carlos Chavez (b. 1899) is without doubt the dominant personality among the musicians of his country.
ie has waged an insistent campaign in the cause of Mexican music, carried on through his activities as
lirector of the National Conservatory from 1928 to 1934, as conductor of the Symphony Orchestra of
vtexico from ‘l928 to 1949, and as guest composer-conductor in many appearances throughout North and
South America, and as Director of the Institute of Fine Arts, 1947-1952.

In his effort to create a national music, Chavez has sought inspiration in the history of the aboriginal
civilizations. His style, though very personal, employs severe, primitive-sounding contrapuntal lines,
which combine into bleak harmonies and rough dissonances with strong contrasts in instrumental colors.
His treatment of form is very free, as in his Sinfoma India, which is not a symphony in the conventional
sense. His evocation of the Indian spirit finds expression sometimes in very direct ways – for example,
the use of ancient instruments in the score of Xochipili-Macuilxochitl, in which he presents an imaginative
evocation of the sound of a pre-Columbian orchestra; or the use of authentic folksongs from present-day
Indian tribes such as the Yaqui and Seri; or, again, the portrayal in music of some of the ancient legends,
as in the ballets The Four Suns and The New Fire. The steady development of Chavez’ style finds increas-
ingly free expression, as evidenced in his Piano Concerto (1938-40). The Pan American Union has pub-
lished a catalogue of his works.

In sharp contrast with the rigorous stylization of Chavez is the down-to-earth exuberance of Silvestre
Revueltas (1899-1940), by whose untimely death Mexico lost one of her greatest creative talents. His sub-
jective nature was most akin to the spirit of the common people, in both their sad and vivacious folk mani-
festations. Revueltas is as Mexican as Moussorgsky was Russian. His best known works are the sym-
phonic essays Cuauhnahuac, Colorines, Janitzio, and Vent anas, Caminos y Esquinas; the second string
quartet, Magueyes; the score for the film Redes; Homage to Garcia Lorca (a great” Spanish poet); and the
Seven Songs for voice and piano, five of which are based on verses by Garcia Lorca.

The younger generation of composers, all striving to express the spirit of the early Mexican people,
includes Luis Sandi (b. 1905), composer of choral and orchestral works, Assistant Director of the Institute
of Fine Arts and, until 1952, Chief of its Department of Music, director of a fine choral ensemble, the
Coro de Madrigalistas, and a student of tribal Indian music; Miguel Bernal Jimenez (b. 1910) of Morelia,
musicologist and student of colonial church music, composer of the opera Tata Vasco, based on the story
of Bishop Vasco de Quiroga; Daniel Ayala (b. 1908), Salvador Contreras (b. 1911), Eduardo H. Moncada
(b. 1899), J. Pablo Moncayo (b. 1912) and Bias Galindo (b. 1910), Director of the reorganized National
Conservatory of Music, all of whom are developing under the tutelage and encouragement of Chavez.

Somewhat apart from these men is Julian Carrillo (b. 1875), a musician grounded in the German ro-
mantic tradition, who for many years has fostered the development of an original system of writing in
fractional tones (1/4, 1/8, and 1/16 of a tone), to which he has given the name “The Thirteenth Sound. ”
Daniel CastafLeda, an engineer, also has made experiments in theoretical acoustics. Vicente T. Mendoza
(b. 1894), of the Institute de Investigaciones Esteticas of the University of Mexico, is one of the ablest
folklorists in Latin America. Also working in Mexico are several Spanish expatriates, including the com-
poser Rodolfo Halffter, the musicologists Otto Mayer-Serra and Jesus Bal y Gay, critic Adolf o Salazar,
and the folklorist Baltasar Samper.

Mexican popular music has spread throughout the New World. Augustin Lara is perhaps the best-
known of its composers.

-Guatemala

Apart from the transcriptions of a few short tunes, we know little of the folk music of Guatemala. The
popular music that we know about is urban in origin and is cosmopolitan in character. Practically all the
recorded and published Guatemalan dances of today originated in the ballroom forms of the 19th century,
for example, the redowa, the mazurka and especially the waltz. However, sound recordings ma’de by
Henrietta Yurchenko under sponsorship of the Inter -Am eric an Indian Institute indicate a rich heritage of
oral tradition is there for the finding. The Section of Folklore of the Library of Congress holds in deposit
the collection of Miss Yurchenko mentioned above.

14

Concerto for Piano and Orchestra

Carlos Chavez

Largo non troppo J = 66

Piano I

(Solo)

Piano

(Orchestra)

j cantando, sempre legato e mqlto sostenuto –

Largo non troppo J = 66

legato sempre

ced. pochissimp. . .//

ced. pochissimo- . ./,

U< f -molto sostenuto

“- ^^ ^ ^

Lr c-r LJ
I< ff

r

^ _ Copyright, 194&, by G. Schirmer, Inc.

– regular accent p = slight accent p = sustained, no accent International Copyright Secured

r

Printed In the U. S. A.

15

The son chap in or guatemalteco (both words meaning native of Guatemala) is the most popular dance.
Sometimes it adopts the rhythm of a quick waltz and sometimes it resembles the European mazurka.

The marimba, national musical instrument of Guatemala, is of particular interest. It consists of a
series of strips of hardwood laid upon a frame with four legs, like a table. The strips are graded in
length and pitch and under each there is a gourd or a wooden box of irregular form that serves as a reso-
nator, graded to match the strips under which they are set. Marimbas are made in all sizes, from the
most frequently used small size for a single player to one so large that seven men are needed to play it.

Jesus Castillo (1877-1946) made extensive studies of the music of the Maya-Quiche Indian and com-
posed concert music utilizing his findings. Ricardo Castillo (b. 1891), his half brother, writing more in
the French impressionist style, also bases some of his compositions upon native music.

Jose’ CastafSeda (b. 1898), composer and critic, has introduced to his country the music of contempo-
rary European composers. A National Conservatory of Music was founded in Guatemala City in 1941.
Salvador Ley (b. 1907), a brilliant pianist, is director. Andres Archila, violinist, is director of the
National Symphony Orchestra. Manuel Herrarte, composer and pianist, was a student of Casadessus.

El Salvador

Some of the old folk dances are still popular in the country districts of El Salvador. When the Feria
de Agosto, a traditional fiesta, is held each year between July 26 and August 6 in San Salvador, the Indians
come from all parts of the country and perform traditional dances in the streets. To the best of present
knowledge, these have not yet been recorded. No special forms of popular urban music – fox trots, tangos,
and waltzes – have been produced. Mexican songs are the most popular. The folk dances barreflo and el
mango have been accepted in urban circles and are occasionally danced in the capital. Pancho Lara is the
most prominent composer of popular music.

In the concert field this smallest .Central American republic has several interesting musical person-
alities. The principal composers are Maria de Baratta (b. 1894), and Ciriaco de Jesus Alas (b. 1886).
Seftora de Baratta, the leading folklorist of El Salvador, has spent eighteen years collecting Indian music.
She has written several published pieces based on Indian themes, including the song Los Tecomatillos, and
Can- Calaqui- Tunal, a chant to the sun. Humberto Pacas (b. 1905), composer, was formerly conductor of
the Salvadorean Symphony Orchestra. A National Conservatory of Music was established in 1952. The
same year the Symphony Orchestra of the Armed Forces, under the direction of Alejandro Muffoz Ciudad
Real, was established.

Hondur as

Though we know very little about the indigenous and folk music of Honduras, we do know that tradi-
tional dances and songs exist. In general, such popular music as is available for study in the United
States is imitative of foreign music both in style and arrangement. The most popular dance forms in ur-
ban centers are the foxtrot, paso-doble, rumba, waltz and tango. Their forms, however, have undergone
considerable change. The numerous marimba orchestras include the usual dance orchestra instruments,
such as the saxophone, clarinet, traps, and violin.

The leading composers, Manuel de Adalid y Gamero (1872-194?) and Rafael Coello Ramo-s, are also
the leading teachers. Adalid y Gamero, who is an organist, orchestra director, and writer on music, is
best known in his own country for Una Noche en Honduras , a symphonic poem. Among his other composi-
tions are Suite Tropical, a symphonic orchestration, Los Funerales de un Conejito, atone poem; military
marches for the band, and Remembranzas Hondurefias, a waltz whichTntroduces old Spanish airs. Coello
Ramos is Inspector of musical education in the primary schools and has written school songs and popular
dance music. Among other composers in the popular idiom are Ramon Ruiz, Camilo Rivera, and Ignacio
Villanueva Galeano. Under the direction of the violinist Humberto Cano, a National School of Music was
established in Tegucigalpa, in 1952.

16

Nicaragua

Indian music is still heard in the provinces of Segovia, Chontales, and Matagalpa. It has very simple
melodic patterns and a pentatonic scale is used. In the city of Masaya, the feast-day of ,the patron saint,
Saint Jerome, is celebrated by natives from all the neighboring villages. The most popular dances, in
which only men take part, are the toro venado, the toro huaco, and the mantudos.

In Granada, throughout the month of October, the mestizos (people of Spanish and Indian blood) show
their devotion to Our Lady of the Holy Rosary by meeting in groups in private houses and spending the
night playing the atabales and other native drums. Bombas (satirical verses) interrupt the rich and varied
rhythm for a few minutes and then the playing is resumed. Another folk dance is the zopilote (buzzard),
in which the performers dress like birds of prey and dance to a gay rhythm, at the same time singing
ironic vers’es about the politicians – who are supposed to be the birds of prey. In the yegiiecita (little
mare) one dancer holds in his hands a wooden contraption resembling a mare’s head, with extremities
fashioned of rattan covered with bleached cotton. The other dancers attack him. The music somewhat
resembles a mazurka and witticisms are sung.

Outstanding among the composers of concert music, Luis A. Delgadillo (b. 1887), composer of some

four hundred works, including a hundred songs and many dances, has done much to stimulate an interest

in music in his native country. His Sinfonia Nicaragtiense, Suite Diciembre, and Aires Populares de
Nicaragua have won wide recognition.

Manuel Ibarra has specialized in religious music. Antonio Zapata, another composer of national
prestige, has written both concert and popular music. Arturo Jose Modal, pianist, lives in Santiago de
Chile.

\
Costa Rica

As in other Central American countries, authentic indigenous folk music is rare in the cities, where
Mexican popular music is much heard. In San Jose and in the towns people dance fox trots, tangos and
boleros imported from other countries. But in contrast to Honduras, El Salvador, and Nicaragua, Costa
Rica has several distinctive forms of popular music that are sung and danced in the country districts and
often at parties and shows in town.

According to the findings of a commission appointed by the Government to study Costa Rican folk mu-
sic, there are four types: callejeras, patriotic songs, pasillos, and danzas. Professor Luis Dobles
Segreda, who appointed the Commission while Secretary of Education, explains these forms as follows:

The music of the callejeras is as voluble as a coquettish woman who makes talk with every-
body. It has a hundred diverse forms. Sometimes gay, fairly jumping out of the marimbas,
sometimes sugary as a bit of candy which melts on the lips and poisons the heart, sometimes ro-
mantic as a gypsy maid who gives everybody a good fortune.

Then come the patriotic songs, whose style is slower and more serious, and which carry
marks of an older epoch music in which a voice is heard that aims to be strong and only manages
to be a shout Exalted music of a valiant and suffering people

The punto guanacasteco is gay and joyous. Musically this is the most original we

have. . . .while the melody goes in 6/8, the accompaniment is always in 3/4, which produces an
irregular rhythm with varied effect and gracious movement.

The danza is an old dance which differs from the habanera because it has a more lively air
and a more gay and salty flavor. Technically also it is different because the form of accompani-
ment is characteristic The danza is perhaps that which has the best flavor and which best repre-
sents its native country, and that is because the most typical thing in all latitudes is the dance in

17
Photo by Alfredo Linares

In this ancient dance f the sicuri, the Aymara Indians of the High Bolivian
Plateau still wear headdresses made of the feathers of the American ostrich

18

which the body moves in waves and gestures which illustrate the customs of the people and their
appetites, their sorrows, and their hopes.

In addition to these forms, of which there are hundreds of examples, three other special indigenous
dances are still popular in Costa Rica; the torito, tamborito, and floreo.

The outstanding composers are Alejandro Monestel (1865-1951), who wrote church music, works for
concert use (including a well-known rhapsody), and many popular pieces; Julio Fonseca (1885-1949), com-
poser of both concert and popular music; Julio Mata (b. 1899) who is also a ‘cellist, and Carlos Enrique
Vargas (b. 1919), pianist and former conductor of the National Symphony Orchestra. Guillermo Aguilar
Machado (b. 1905) is director of the National Conservatory of Music which was founded in 1942. Raul
Cabezas Duffner is well known as a violinist. Daniel Zuftiga has been instrumental in the collection and
popularization of the folk music of Costa Rica.

Panama

Panama is, in a sense, a geographical crossroads, and in its music it is possible to discern many
elements from Andalusia and Castile, from Central America and the West Indies, and from the coastal re-
gions of northe r n South America. All these have resulted in a music that is one of the most colorful
and fascinating in the Americas.

The songs and dances of Panama are never sentimentaU The popular lyrics are free from the usual
literary and musical cliches of the 19th century sentimental storehouse; on the contrary, they are per-
vaded by a free and healthy optimism. The rhythm is exhilarating and vivacious and the melody runs
smoothly. The Panamanian singer slides without effort through intervals that are most distant and diffi-
cult to modulate. He sings in a detached way, with the blank intonation of one who sings for the pleasure
of it, not caring whether anyone listens or not.

The instruments used in the Panamanian popular orchestra are the mejoranera (a five-string guitar),
the rabel (three-string rustic violin), the tambora (large drum), the pujador (medium -sized drum), the
repicador (small- drum with a sound similar to that of the Cuban bongo’), the quachara (rattle made out of a
small dry gourd), and, last but not least, the almirez (brass mortar).

The most important songs and dances are the tamborito, the mejorana and the punto. The mejorana,
a song of Spanish origin, was probably brought to Panama during the 18th century. Its present form still
has some kinship with the present-day Cuban punto and the folias from the Canary Islands, which are also
derived from the Spanish folk-music of that century. Neither the Indians nor the Negroes have contributed
to the development of the mejorana in an obvious way. Nevertheless, this song has a color, a quality, that
could belong only to the music of the country of the Caribbean area. The mejorana can be either vocal or
instrumental. The vocal mejorana, sung by men exclusively, is never danced and is more commonly
known as socavon.

The tamborito is an old dance. It was popular in the early years of the 17th century, not only in
Panama itself but also in Spain. In La dama boba, a play by Lope de Vega (1562-1635), there is a danced
song which does not differ in form from the text of a present day tamborito. The old text runs:

De do viene el caballero?
Viene de Panama. *
Trancelin en el sombrero,
Viene de Panama.
Cadenita de oro al cuello,
Viene de Panama.
En los brazos el gregUesco,
Viene de Panama.

* Pronounced Panama, as it was well into the 19th century when the French began work upon the Canal,

19

The distinguished Panamanian violinist Alfredo de Saint-Malo is director of the Conservatory of
Music in Panama. Narciso Garay (1876-1953) was an able composer and writer on folk music, and pub-
lished an excellent study on Panamanian folklore. Roque Cordero is the most prominent contemporary
composer of Panama. Herbert de Castro composes extensively and promotes concerts of contemporary
music, and is Director of the National Orchestra. Well-known for their popular music are Alberto Gali-
many (b. 1889), a Spaniard who has lived in Panama for many years and composes for the band, and
Ricardo Fabrega (b. 1905), who has had much success with work in the popular idiom. Fabrega, who also
owns a publishing house, is perhaps the best known locally among contemporary composers.
Children Singing
Bronze by the Costa Rican sculptor Francisco ZufSiga

20

B. THE MUSIC OF TODAY IN SOUTH AMERICA

Venezuela

In Venezuela, the music of the coast and the interior plains, though they have a common origin, differ
greatly in rhythm and expression. In the coastal region, there is a distinct Negro influence, expressed in
the greater complexity of rhythmic formulas in the accompaniment, in a sort of “elongation” of the melo-
dic phrases – a displacement of the accented parts in the measure resulting from syncopation – and in si-
multaneous, simple, compound, and even quinary rhythms. But in the inland plains and the Andean re-
gions no trace of Negro influence is found. Singing in three independent parts with the melody in the mid-
dle voice is reported by Luis Felipe Ramon y Rivera. The music introduced by the early Spanish colo-
nists seems often to have remained free from indigenous or any other influence, and such gradual trans-
formations as have occurred, to have come from within. Many original characteristics have thus been
kept fairly intact.

Owing to the peculiar tuning of the cuatro (four-stringed guitar), inverted chords are often employed,
and the Venezuelan ear is so used to this that even in songs for voices without instrumental accompani-
ment, inverted chords occur almost four times as often as chords in root positions. The only other ele-
ment that is foreign to real Hispanic tradition is the presence of rapidly executed melodic passages,
rapidly repeated.. This is possibly a characteristic of Indian origin. The joropo is the most characteris-
tic Venezuelan dance and song. Its tempo is quick, the melodic phrases are short, and the accompaniment
in 3/4 meter is strongly accentuated.

The great Venezuelan pianist Teresa Carreflo (1853-1917) first drew the attention of the out-
side world to her country and its music. Reynaldo Hahn (1875-1947), though born in Caracas, left the
country when three years old. The work of contemporary composers is, in general, conservative.
Vicente Emilio Sojo (b. 1887), composer and director of the Escuela Superior de Musica y Declamacion,
conducts a fine choral group, the Orfeon Lamas. Juan Bautista Plaza (b. 1898), former organist of the
Cathedral of Caracas, is a prominent teacher, composer, and scholar. Among other leading composers
are Juan Vicente Lecuna (b. 1898), whose fine musicianship but unfortunately very small production have
distinguished him; Maria Luisa Escobar (b. 1903), folklorist and composer; Juan Antonio Calcaflo, a mu-
sic critic and authority on the history of Venezuelan music; Moises Moleiro (b. 1905), composer in small
forms; and Carlos Vidal, writer and critic. Juan Liscano, the folklorist, an album of whose selected re-
cordings of Venezuelan folk music has been released by the Library of Congress in Washington (Album No.
15), should also be mentioned here. Young composers, pupils of Sojo, now making their mark are: Angel
Sauce, Antonio Estevez, and Evencio Castellanos.

Colombia

i

The folk and popular music of Colombia has an amiable and tuneful lyricism. The bambuco, one of

the many derivations from the waltz, is probably the most representative of Colombian songs and dances.
It is in moderately quick tempo. The man takes his partner to the center of the dancing place, where they
nod to each other before they begin ‘to dance; then they separate and alternately whirl and face each other,
with the man pursuing the girl as she coyly evades him. Other folk and popular dances of Colombia are
pasillo, guabina, porro, fandango, danzo’n, cumbia, merengue, and bunde.

The tiple, a small guitar with five strings, and the bandola, or mandolin, are used to accompany the
bambuco! Other instruments typical of the popular Colombian orchestra are: the vihuela, a seven-
stringed” guitar ; the cuatro, with four strings; and the drum. There is also the guache, a hollow pipe

21

of hardwood some fifteen inches long; seeds within the tube make an agreeable sound when they rattle
against the walls and against the bamboo thorns placed crosswise inside. Another Colombian instrument
is the guacharaca, consisting of a piece of mac ana (a hardwood palm) with shallow grooves over which the
player scrapes a piece of dried bamboo.

Colombia’s best known musician is the composer, violinist, and conductor Guillermo Uribe-Holguin
(b. 1880), who has also had a long career as an educator. He has written orchestral, chamber, and piano
music, including the symphony Del Terruflo, and more than three hundred Trozos en el Sentimiento Popu-
lar for piano. A complete list oTTTis works was published by the Pan American Union in its Boletfn de Mu-
sic a y Artes Visuales, No. 31, September, 1952. His contemporary, Emilio Murillo (1880-1942), is popu-
lar for his Pasillos and other short piano pieces. The compositions of Antonio Maria Valencia (1905-1952)
pianist and director of the Conservatory at Cali, include Sonata Boyacense. Jesus Bermudez-Silva (b.
1884) has written orchestral works? and Jose” Rozo Contreras (b. 1894), conductor of the Banda Nacional
in Bogota, is the author of a suite Tierra Colombiana, overtures, and other works. Among the younger
composers are Carlos Posada- Am ado r (b. 1908), now resident in Mexico, Adolfo Mejia (b. 1909) and
Santiago Velasco Leanos, director of the Conservatory of the National University. Alejandro Wills has
written many successful pieces in the popular idiom. Jose’ Ignacio Perdomo Escobar, a young lawyer and
folklorist of promise, has written an excellent history of music in Colombia. Guillermo Espinosa (b. 1905)
founder and former conductor of the Orquesta Sinfonica Nacional of Bogota (1936-1947), has been active in
stimulating an interest in symphonic and chamber music. He organized the Latin American Music Festi-
val held at Bogota in 1938. In 1945, he founded the Society “Pro Arte Musical de Cartagena 11 , which organ-
ized the annual Festivales de Cartagena de Indias, of which he is the musical director. Espinosa has con-
ducted in almost all of the countries of Europe and Latin America, as well as in the United States. He now
resides in Washington, D. C. , and tours the Americas and Europe as guest conductor.

Ecuador

Four centuries of close contact with the music imported from Europe seem to have brought but slight
modifications to the dances, scales, and symmetrical rhythms of the Ecuador can Indian, which appear to
have survived from pre-Columbian days. Some instruments still in general use (such as the rondador
(panpipes), pincullo and certain percussion instruments) survive from pre-conquest days. Widespread
also are harps, violins and guitars of European origin but local manufacture.

The dance continues to hold an important place in the Indian’s daily life as it did in pre-Conquest
times. It is often impossible to differentiate between the dance proper and the religious or profane cere-
-mony to which it belongs. The choreographic forms of the present day are almost identical with those
described by the first Spanish chroniclers of the 16th century. In some dances the action is limited to
short steps intermingled with turns, knee flexions, and movements of the torso and arms to either side; in
others, the gestures are violent and complex. The performers face one another in some dances, men and
women standing in separate rows; in others, performers of both sexes alternate in each of two rows. In
the circle dances, the orchestra is placed in the center.

The danzante, cachullapi, and sanjuanito are highland dances of Indian origin. Along the coast, and in
Quito and some of the inland cities, the zamba and pasacalle, Spanish in origin, are popular. The danzan-
te^ from the word meaning both a dancer and a piece of music that may be danced, is a rather melancholy
dance in slow tempo. One form of danzante is the quaranda, named for a town where Carnival festivities
are held’. For these the native dancers wear masks of an obscure symbolic character, not caricatures of
living creatures but impersonations of forgotten deities and of forces of evil and of nature.

The leading Ecuadorean composers are Sixto M. Duran and Segundo Luis Moreno (b. 1882), who have
written pieces in both popular and concert idioms, and have made studies in the folk music of their country.
Other outstanding figures are Pedro Traversari (b. 1874). Juan Pablo Muftoz Sanz, composer and teacher;
Padre Agustin de Askunaga, organist and choirmaster of the Convento de San Francisco; and Luis H.
Salgado (b. 1903), director of the National Conservatory, who has composed, among other works, a sym-
phonic suite, Atahualpa. Belisario Pefia Ponce (b. 1902) is coming to be regarded as one of the most
serious of the younger composers.

22

Peru

A pentatonic scale is used today in the highlands as it was, apparently, four centuries ago. Because
of the influence of the guitar and other string instruments brought over by the Spaniards and adopted by the
Indians (as described in THE COLONIAL, PERIOD, pages 4-8) we have today a music, that has adopted
European harmonic methods and adapted them to the latent harmonic structure of melodies clearly non-
European in character.

Quechua melodies are simple. Generally, they consist of only one or two motives or semi-periods of
even length. Three-period melodies are infrequent. In two-period melodies, the first part usually ends
upon the first degree (highest tone) of the scale, in a sort of non-conclusive cadence. Frequently the first
semi-period ends upon the mediant (4th degree of the descending pentatonic scale).

One must bear in mind, however, that Peru is not only a Quechua highland. The white Peruvians, the
mestizos, zambos (mulattoes) and Negroes from the lower coastal regions have their own music, in no
way related to Quechua music. The mariner a, tondero, resbalosa, cumbia, festejo, aqua de nieve, amor-
fino, socavon and other criollo songs and dances more or less still in use, derive directly from Spanish
prototypes which have been profoundly transformed by Negro influence.

The cashua, or “love dance” of the highlands, is performed only by unmarried but betrothed couples;
any number of persons may take part. Standing in a circle and holding the partner by the hand, the men do
shoe-tapping while the women spin around, always keeping the same formation. The rhythm is vigorous
and its tempo is quick. Drums, especially the caja (small drum), beat the rhythm in accompaniment to
the flutes and the song.

The quailichada is an Indian Christmas song from Tarma and Caftete. Formerly it was danced in
front of the traditional manger. Each dancer carried in his hand an azucena, a sort of artificial tree orna-
mented with tinsel and colored paper, and with it he beat the rhythm of the dance against the floor.

Cultivation of the fine art of music is centered in Lima, the capital, with active groups working also
at Arequipa and Cuzco. The leading organizations are the Nueva Orquesta Sinfonica de Lima, conducted
by the Viennese musician Theo Buchwaid. “(b. 1902); the Sas-Rosay Academy of Music, the Conservatorio
Nacional de Musica; and the Institute Bach.

Quite a large group of composers, subscribing to various artistic credos, are at work. Many of them
have studied extensively in Europe, in most cases in France. The outstanding composers, most of whom
are interested in folk music, include Pablo Chavez Aguilar (b. 1899), Andres Sas (b. 1900), Raoul de
Verneuil (b. 1901), Carlos Sanchez Malaga (b. 1904), Roberto Carpio (b. 1900), and Alfonso de Silva.
Other composers are Daniel Alomia Robles (1871-1942), Teodoro Valcarcel (1900-1942), Jose Malsio, a
young man, and Jose Veloz, a disciple of Schoenberg. Music critics are Carlos Raygada (1898-1953) and
Cesar Arrospide de la Flor. Rosa Mercedes A. de Morales has arranged many folk songs of the various
regions of the country.

Bolivia

From a musical point of view, Bolivia is divided into two well-defined zones; the valleys, having
characteristics and traditions that are mainly Spanish in origin, and the highlands, where the Quechua and
Aymara Indian traditions prevail. The music of the valleys is gay, rhythmically colorful, and sensuous,
like that of Argentina and Chile (see below). The music of the highlands is bleak and austere, like the
country from which it comes. The dances are sad and measured, simple in figures and movements, and
the tunes have a persistent and pervading melancholy. The voice, of the singer is guttural and grave.
Sometimes, as in the Carnival dances, this sadness disguises itself as joy, but itsis a borrowed joy with-
out any spontaneity; under it lies the age-old melancholy of the Indian.

/’ The cacharpaya (from the Quechua word meaning “to say good-bye”) is a dance that is usually a part
of the festivities that close the Carnival season. The kaluyo is one of the many dances that employ

23

zapateo (shoe tapping); changes in figures and steps occur very often.

The usual musical instruments in the native orchestra are the charango, (small, armadillo- shell gui-
tar), quena (reed flute), sicu (pan-pipe), anata (big flute), caja (small drum), and bom bo (large drum).
The Indians have added to their native instruments some of those the Spaniards brought to America. The
violin, psaltery, guitar, lute, and charango are today as much a part of the native orchestra as is the que-
na.

The influence of Indian, folk, and popular music is reflected in the work of many of the older compos-
ers, who have written characteristic dances, marches, and songs. Among the most active contemporary
composers are Jose Maria Velasco Maidana (b. 1899), author of the ballet Amerindia, a symphony, and
other works in which he shows nationalist tendencies; Antonio Gonzalez Bravo (b. 1885), a teacher and a
student of folk music, author of compositions for the theatre and chorus; Mario Estenssoro, Director,
until 1952, of the National Conservatory; Humberto Viscarra Monje (b. 1898), a pianist and author of piano
pieces; and Simeon Roncal (b. 1872), pianist and organist, who has written dances and marches in typical
folk rhythms.

Chile

From the beginning of the Conquest up to the present time, the Indians have kept their habits, arts,
and ceremonies in almost impenetrable isolation, neither allowing themselves to be influenced by the
Spanish nor exerting any influence on them. The folk and popular music that is known to us is of Spanish
origin. The majority of the dances are danzas de pafluelo (scarf dances) in which the couple, man and
woman, dance separately. In general, Chilean music is gay. Albert Friedenthal, the Viennese folklorist^
who knew it well, comments: “Chile is a happy land. There are no tristes in its music, and it is concen-
trated passion rather than melancholy that one senses in its few instrumental pieces in the minor mode. ”

The most popular dance in Chile is the cueca or zamacueca. Every event in the nation’s life – impor-
tant and unimportant – seems to be commented upon in a new cueca. This gay dance may glorify a national
prize fighter, a winning soccer team, or some outstanding historical event, such as a battle of the War of
Independence or something that happened in the -Revolution of 1891.

A 19th century French traveller described the cueca as follows: “The girl holds a handkerchief with
one hand and with the other hand she lifts her skirt slightly, half trying to escape the pursuit of the man.
The man, with his left hand on his hip, waves his handkerchief over his head and with a strong rhythmical
step circles around the girl. He wants to attract her attention. But the girl, with her eyelids obstinately
lowered, evades him. No matter how persistent his attempts, she will continue to avoid him. In his im-
patience, he redoubles his efforts to charm and outdoes himself in grace and skill. But she seems insen-
sitive to all this and glides on lightly, always looking down at her feet. The music, the songs and cries of
the people around and the clapping of hands excite the pursuer, whose hopes rise when he senses the girl’s
lassitude. At last she raises her -eyes and they meet the eyes of the dancer. None knows which of the two
is the victorious and which the defeated. ”

Enrique Soro (b. 1884), one of the most active members of the older group of Chilean composers, is
a conductor and teacher as well as a prolific writer. He has composed works in all forms, including sev-
eral symphonies and suites for orchestra, a concerto for piano and orchestra, chamber music, piano
pieces, and songs. A complete catalog of his works has been published by the Pan American Union in its
Boletin de Musica y Artes Visuales, No. 34, December, 1952/

Among other older members of the Chilean school of composers are Pedro Humberto Allende (b. 1885}
who is the most characteristic representative of the nationalist school; Carlos Isamitt (b. 1885), a painter,
educator, and folklorist, noted for his studies of the music of the Araucanian Indians, upon which he has
based compositions of an arresting character; Alfonso Leng (b. 1884), a German Romanticist who sought
to eradicate the Italian influence so prevalent throughout Latin America, and is at his best writing lieder;
Prospero Bisquertt Prado (b. 1881), first a romanticist, later an impressionist; Samuel Negrete (b. 1893),
teacher of mathematics and music, and a composer in the impressionist style; Carlos Lavin (b. 1883), who

24

is also a student of music folklore; and Acario Cotapos. Victor Tevah directs the Symphony Orchestra of
Chile.

Contemporary trends had their inception in the Bach Society, founded in 1918 by a group of young in-
tellectuals under the leadership of Domingo Santa Cruz (b. 1899), then a law student in the University of
Chile, but later a diplomat, composer, and administrator. Though the Society was organized primarily
to give performances of great choral music, it brought together various elements interested in reforming
the teaching of music in the public schools, and in creating a modern Chilean school of composers. In
1927 Santa Cruz organized the Bach Conservatory, and was instrumental in founding several art and liter-
ary journals, one of which, the Revista Aulos, began to publish works by the young Chilean composers.
This group was mainly responsible for the early reforms in the University of Chile through which various
schools of art, including the National Conservatory of Music, were organized within the University. Be-
ginning in 1933, Santa Cruz served as dean of the Faculty of Fine Arts of the University of Chile, and
from 1948 as dean of the Faculty of Musical Arts and Sciences – both of which have been active in spread-
ing both practice and knowledge of music throughout the country. Until 1952 he was also director of the
government- sponsored Institute de Extension Musical, which administers the Symphony Orchestra, the
opera and the ballet.

The Revista Musical Chilena, one of the three or four best journals in the hemisphere devoted to mu-
sic, was founded in 1945 by the group headed by Santa Cruz. Under the editorship of Vicente Salas Viu, it
was published six times a year until 1950 when it became a quarterly, under the direction of Juan Orrego
Salas.

Also part of the national music organization of the University is the Institute de Investigaciones Musi-
cales, sections of which are devoted to Pedagogy, Folklore, Musicology, History and Publications. This
is under the direction of Eugenio Pereira Salas, author of the best history of music in Chile, Los Origenes
del Arte Musical en Chile.

The younger composers, in general, are writing in an international idiom. Among them are Jorge
Urrutia Blondel (b. 1905); Rene Amengual (b. 1911), a pianist whose work is greatly influenced by his in-
strument; and Alfonso Letelier (b. 1912), who writes most effectively for voice and chorus. Letelier is
an able orchestrator and directs an interesting ensemble of madrigal singers. Still in their 20 ‘s are Juan
Orrego Salas, Carlos Riesco and Alfonso Montecino, all promising composers. Works of the first named
have been printed and performed in the United States. Salas Viu has written a book on the composers of
Chile, La Creacion Musical en Chile, 1900-1951, published by the University of Chile.

Argentina

In Argentina, most popular music is light and fast; the tunes are gay, and the different forms are
clear-cut and well-defined. Only in the songs that are mainly of Indian origin, such as the vidala and the
triste, does the Argentine dream and ramble. When the gaucho sings, and he sings often, he expresses
himself briefly,. without circumlocutions.

The structure of Argentine dances such as the gato and the chacarera is as definite as the form of a
Mozart or Scarlatti sonata. The pattern is built up with an almost academic precision. The introduction
has a certain number of bars; the vocal part, a certain number also; the guitar interludes are a definite,
length, and not a single bar more or less. Though the dancer improvises his stamping steps, and turns
on this fixed structure, he too bases his art firmly on the pattern of the dance he is performing.

European elements – Spanish, French, and Italian in almost equal parts * are responsible for most
popular music in Buenos Aires, while in the countryside at large the Spanish tradition prevails. Songs and
dances in the latter category have become naturalized, one may say, and have undergone considerable
change. Internal migrations in the Colonial Period led to the adoption and spread of many forms of popu-
lar music.

25

La Cumparsita

G. H. Matos Rodriguez

– ftttn-tfo – -no *u vie – jf – to
Y lf> – cv <f* ptts-io’rr Cfe – go t/c_tf -war.* Cor – rfd Tra* de &ua-mt* – da.

Que_e-ra lift, – da_e -rahe-chi – ce –

J)e ?u Ju – riae-rajt^na
– /* A* g//er-e-r f Ma*-ta $*e se can – *<$, Y joor o-fro /o tie – jo
Reproduced from Tango Land Album., New York, Edw. B. Marks Music Corp.,
Copyright 1937. Used by permission of the publisher.

Probably the first Argentine dance that comes to mind is the tango, so well known in every European
and American country that a description seems almost unnecessary. The tango began to be heard in the
last years of the 19th century in the suburbs of Buenos Aires, but its form was then very different from
the tango as we know it. It was then a hybrid mixture of the Andalusian tango, the Cuban habanera, and
the Argentine milonga, and not until around 1905-1910 did it begin to adopt its most characteristic feature –
the syncopated rhythm. Though the form is now distinct, it is in no sense final. The tango continues its
constant evolution, absorbing all sorts of elements having a great variety of origins.

The estilo is the most typical song of the Argentine pampas. The text, almost always dealing with
life in the vast Argentine plains, tells of the cowherd, who sings to the rhythm of his slow-gaited oxen, of
the cowboy leading a herd of cattle, or of the chalchalero bird, which feeds on the fruit of the chalchal
tree. Words and music have a unity that harmonizes perfectly with the surrounding landscape!

The gato is the most important dance of the Argentine countryside, and many other dances are derived
from it. It is a dance for two couples. When the guitar player begins to sing, the dancers begin with a
large circular turn followed by a smaller turn taken by each dancer. During the turns, the men follow
their partners, snapping their fingers. Another dance figure follows, accompanied only by the guitars,
without any singing; this second figure is performed by the women with quick shoe-tapping steps, their .
skirts lifted slightly with the left hand to show the agility of their foot movements. Meanwhile, without
moving from their places, the men execute a rapid shoe- tapping, combined with a foot movement called
escobilleo. This consists in swinging one foot after the other backward and forward, lightly scraping the
ground with the shoe. The action is extremely rapid – so much so that, according to a folk saying, H you
can’t see their feet. ”

The triste is a slow, melancholy love song, a plaintive tune of Peruvian origin that became acclimated
in northern Argentina in the second half of the 19th century. The melodic line has both Indian and Euro-
pean characteristics. Both the name and the melodic structure of the vidala, a song form, are a blending
of Spanish and Indian elements. The Quechua diminutive lla or la is added to the Spanish word vida (life),
and to this the Quechua y (meaning my) is added. Thus vidalay means “little life of mine. ” A further in-
crement makes the vidalitay or vidalita.

Carlos Vega (b. 1898) is the outstanding student of folk music of Argentina, if not of the whole conti-
nent of South America. His collection of sound recordings is probably the largest and most comprehensive
and his publications most numerous. His students Isabel Aretz, Lauro Ayestaran, Sylvia Eisenstein, and
Luis Felipe Ramon y Rivera have done outstanding work, not only in Argentina but in other countries.

The number of composers is large and includes every shade of musical thought from ultra-conserva-
tive to ultra- radical. In the conservative and older group, those who write chiefly in the traditional man-
ner have been Alberto Williams (1862-1952), Manuel Gomez Carrillo (b. 1883); Gilardo Gilardi (1889-1947);
Constantino Gaito (b. 1878), director of the Gaito Institute; Carlos Lopez Buchardo (1881-1948), director
of the National Conservatory; Athos Palma (b. 1881), professor at the National Conservatory; Italian-born
Pascual de Rogatis (b. 1881), violinist and teacher, as well as composer; and Floro M. Ugarte (b. 1885),
composer and former manager of the Colon Opera House. Most of the men in this group studied first in
Buenos Aires and then in Italy or France.

One of the outstanding figures in Argentine music today is the composer Juan Jose Castro (b. 1895),
for many years director of the Orchestra of the Teatro Colon. He has conducted extensively in other parts
of the Americas, in Europe atid in Australia. His opera “Proserpina y el Extranjero” won First Prize in
a contest sponsored by La Scala of Milan in 1951. His works include the ballet Mekhano, the S i n f o n i’a
Argentina, Sinfonia Biblica, and other works for voice, chorus, chamber ensembles, etc.

Leadership of the so-called contemporary group of composers, modern in trend,, is in the hands of
the Liga de Compositores de la Argentina, supplanting the old Grupo Renovacion as a branch of the Interna-
tional Society for ContemporVry Music. The League includes Juan Jose Castro and his brothers Jose
Maria (b. 1892) and Washington (b. 1909); Julian Bautista (b. 1901 in Spain); Roberto Garcia Morillo (b.
1911); Luis Gianneo (b. 1897); Guillermo Graetzer (b. 1914); Pxa Sebastiani (b. 1925); Jacobo Ficher (b.
1896 in Russia but resident in Buenos Aires); with Alberto F. Ginastera (b, 1916) as Secretary-General.

27

Ginastera first attracted attention with his ballet Panambi, which was performed at the Colon Opera House
in Buenos Aires in 1940. Since then he has composed several symphonies, music for the films, for the
stage, and for various chamber music combinations. He was director of the newly established Conserva-
tory of Music and Dramatic Art of La Plata until 1952. A complete list of his compositions was published
by the Pan American Union in its Boletin de Musica y Artes Visuales, No. 26, April, 1952. Other con-
temporary composers are Carlos Suffern (b. 1905), Isabel Aretz (b. 1909), Juan A. Garcia Estrada (b.
1895), and Honorio Siccardi (b. 1897).

A most controversial figure of Argentine music has been Juan Carlos Paz (b. 1897), a radical atonal –
ist and follower of Schoenberg who conceives much of his music in the twelve-tone system. P^z was the
founder of the Grupo Renovacion, but in recent years he has detached himself from the group, and now
heads a new organization of similar character called La Nueva Musica. He has been instrumental in pre-
senting for the first time in Argentina the works of m”ost of the leading contemporary composers of
Europe and America, and his own works have been performed at festivals of the International Society for
Contemporary Music.

Paraguay

The Jesuits of the 17th and 18th centuries are believed to have taught European music idioms to the
Guarany Indians so thoroughly that all traces of native music soon disappeared. Thus it may be said that
Paraguayan folk and popular music shows no Indian influences and is a reproduction of various types of
popular music from Europe and from its neighbor Argentina. In Paraguay, such European dances as the
galop, mazurka, and polka have nevertheless undergone distinctive changes in tempo and expression. As
a rule, the original tempo becomes slower, the rhythm softer and less sharp, the melody more lyrical
and hence more “cantabile. ”

The galopa and the polka paraguaya are the best-known folk-popular dances. The cane ion or purajhei
(Guarany for song) is siing in the Guarany tongue. The sweet flowing sound of Guarany makes it one of the
most euphonic languages in the world.

The composer Juan Carlos Moreno Gonzalez has made some study of the music of the Guarany Indians.
Jose Asuncion Flores has popularized the Guarania, a form supposed to be in the popular idiom.

Uruguay

The folk and popular music of Uruguay has virtually the same characteristics as the Argentine, de-
scribed above. The triste and the estilo, as sung on the Uruguayan plains, are similar in structure and
expression to songs of the same name sung in Argentina. The tango and other popular and urban music,
as sung and played in Montevideo, differ in no respect from that heard in Buenos Aires.

The principal development of the fine art of music has taken place in the present century. Eduardo
Fabini (b. 1883), is the leading contemporary composer. His early tone-poems, ,Campo and La Isla de los
Ceibos, have a definite New World flavor. More recent works are the ballet Mburucuya, the “FantasiaTTor
violin and orchestra, and many songs in which he has captured the spirit of typically Uruguayan poems.
Other contemporary musicians are Alfonso Broqua (1876-1946), Carlos Pedrell (1878-1941), Carlos
Estrada (b. 1909), Vicente Ascone (b. 1897), and Luis Cluzeau-Mortet (b. 1893). Hector Tosar Errecart
(b. 1923), in spite of his extreme youth, has established himself as one of the most brilliant young com-
posers in South America.

The Inter -Am eric an Institute of Musicology, a “one-man” enterprise founded by Francisco Curt
Lange (b. 1903), has contributed to the development of Uruguayan music and exerts a hemisphere-wide in-
fluence through its Editorial Cooperativa Inter am eric ana de Compositores and Boletin Latino -Americano
Musica (Six volumes, 1935-1946). Lange has been librarian of the record collection of more than twen-
ty thousand items in the official government radio station SODRE. This Station has a symphony orchestra
of about one hundred players, a conservatory of music, a school of the ballet, various chamber music

28

ensembles, and a trained chorus for operatic and choral work. Lange has recently moved the center of
his activities to Mendoza, Argentina, where he directs a Department of Musicology in the University of
Cuyo and has begun publication of a Journal of Musical Studies, four issues of which appeared 1949-1951.

Brazil

The music of Brazil is perhaps the most varied and rich in the Western Hemisphere. This is to be
expected, for the complex immensity of the Brazilian territory is necessarily reflected in the variety of
the music of its people. It is often said that Brazilian folk and popular music is a blend of Portuguese,
Indian, and Negro strains; but the statement is too general to be taken seriously.

The noted Brazilian musicologist Luiz Heitor Corra de Azevedo stated in a recent address: “Brazil-
ian music and, consequently, the works of the Brazilian composers, who since the end of the 19th century
have tried to build their own compositions on popular music, are strongly impregnated with the musical
traditions of Portuguese folklore Many of the old xacaras, or ballads, completely forgotten in Portu-
gal, are found very much alive in the musical traditions of the Northeast of Brazil; others are common to
the repertory of both countries. Their subjects continue to be palace love affairs, feudal intrigues, sto-
ries of the Moors, kings, princesses, and pages. All preserve the simple old melodies, sometimes
rhythmically obscure because of the peculiar manner in -which they are sung in the interior of Brazil. The
singer subtly changes the purely musical movement of the European song in order to adapt it more inti-
mately to the verse, which is also often changed in meter as well as meaning. M

According to Gilbert Chase,* “The negro element seems predominant in many of the popular dances
of Brazil, such as the samba and the lundu, a modern variant of the latter being the maxixe. Some confu-
sion has been caused by the fact that in the south of Brazil the samba was known by the name of fandango;
the rhythm of the samba is binary, not ternary like that of the Spanish fandango. However, the fandango
and other Spanish dances were undoubtedly practiced in Brazil in early colonial times. It is curious to
observe how certain features of the Catholic religious processions, imported from the peninsula, -were
blended with voodooistic ceremonies brought by slaves from Africa in the Brazilian congadas, proces-
sions, with dancing, singing, and acting traditionally practiced by the Negroes in Brazil. It is equally
interesting to note that European influence is apparent in most of the music associated with the congadas
or congos. ”

The macumba takes its name from a secret religious ceremony that is accompanied by songs and
dances. It is a fetish song and is believed to have an effect on the forces the singer is trying to influence.
The uneducated Brazilian Negro who sings the macumba is officially a Roman Catholic, but the ritual of
the Church seems remote and obscure, almost beyond his understanding. Not being able to grasp its
meaning clearly, he makes use of it as a last resource. But superstition and magic have for him a power-
ful, immediate, and infallible strength that is close at hand and can be invoked with the necessary incanta-
tion. Thus old Christian symbols, together with others brought from the African jungles and those inher-
ited from the Amazonian Indians, mingle in his religious practices. Music is not valued for its intrinsic
beauty but for its magical power. If the singer is a farmer, the song will be for abundant crops – for rain
in time of drought or for the end of rain if there has been too much; the sick person sings to be made well;
the lover to dispel his beloved’s indifference.

The marcha, a gay one-step, is the inevitable accompaniment of Carnival festivities and de spite its
name, has nothing military about it. The tempo of the marchinha (little march) is quicker than that of the
marcha. The maxixe, the oldest of urban dances in Brazil, is danced in couples to a duple meter and
moderate tempo. The xhythm is usually syncopated. The samba, called “the most characteristic music
of the Carnival, ” is of two distinct types – the rural, of Negro origin and similar to the batuque, and the
urban, derived from the maxixe.

“One of the most enthusiastic manifestations of carefree human happiness, ” wrote Mario de Andrade
(1893-1945), who was an outstanding Brazilian folklorist, “is the Carnival o Brazil. In this great festival

* The Music of Spain (New York, W. W. Norton and Company, 1941)

29

Quasi lento (J=7e)

Cirandas No. 7

X6, xo, petit oiseau

(Excerpt)

He it or Vi lla-Lobos

m

^””‘r^*-*

M:4T?f::

I kr^

‘ esfressfvo

t
3

k^M

fJ

J j J

P r.

U-
BJf^r f, 1
tfir^s** ^
Reproduced from Musique Br&silienne Moderne, Rio de Janeiro, 1937

Steps of the Frevo
Carnival Dance of North Brazil

Carnival in Rio

31

of joy, all the arts play their part; but music has the leading role. From music shops (especially those
dealing in radios and records), bars, casinos, and dance halls, new tunes go out over the country. The
people choose the most dynamic, the best dance tunes, and these become the hits of the current carnival.
For at least two months, the whole country is filled with jovial music. ”

Recife, the capital of the State of Pernambuco, has the most curious carnival in Brazil,^ according to
Andrade, and it is here that the two most original carnival dances originated – the maracatu and the frevo.
The former is Negro in origin; the latter has a more complex mixture of traditions.

“The best freVo dancers display prodigious agility, and a gymnastic elasticity comparable only with
certain Russian dances and with some of the genuine North American Negro dances. Being based princi-
pally on the attitudes and movements of the body, the fr6vo develops a great number of intricate move-
ments and variety of steps, often improvised, and it then presents moments of admirable beauty and vir-
tuosity; at the same time, its music and pace have the effect of awaking in people that collective enthu-
siasm which causes them to dance in the streets with a truly ‘dionysiac 1 frenzy. It is a sort of delirium
from which none present can escape

“Through the enchanting vocal timbre (slightly nasal in the men and of greater simplicity but great
clarity in the women) the music of these and other Carnival dances unfolds in all its varied movement and
prodigious richness of rhythm. l!

Contemporary Brazilian composers are among the most productive and intensely nationalistic in
Latin America. They are fortunate in possessing a rich folk-popular heritage and they understand and
use it in their work. This use of national material is best exemplified in the compositions of Heitor Villa-
Lobos (b. 1887), who is not only the outstanding Brazilian composer of the present day but one of the
most significant 20th century composers in the western hemisphere. The names of Villa-Lobes and
Chavez are often linked. Both men have emphasized nationalistic trends in their music and have done
much to promote music education. Chavez, however, draws more upon the primitive element in the mu-
sic of his country (Mexico), while Villa- Lobos 1 work stems from contemporary Brazilian folk and popular
idioms.

Villa-Lobos lived in Paris for a number of years; he has also traveled through the most remote dis-
tricts of Brazil in order to study folklore at first hand and steep himself in this rich source. During the
ten years 1931 to 1941 he devoted himself almost exclusively to developing a program of music education
in the public schools of Rio de Janeiro. He has rearranged some of the great musical literature of
Europe for choral presentation by children, since he believes that the child can best learn to love music
by singing it. The emphasis, however, has been upon Brazilian music for Brazilian children.

A number of lists of his works have been prepared. They vary considerably in detail, for the com-
poser’s work is amazingly large and embraces a great number of different genres, including operas, sym-
phonies, symphonic poems, concertos, chamber music, choral works, sonatas, piano pieces, and songs.
His fourteen chflros have attracted international attention as a new form with constantly changing rhythms
and unmistakable national qualities. Based on a popular form of Brazilian serenade, the chCros are im-
provisational in character and employ instrumental and choral combinations. In each chOro one instru-
ment predominates over the others, displaying skill and brilliance.

The composers Oscar Lorenzo Fernandez (1897-1948) and Francisco Mignone (b. 1897) founded the ,
Brazilian Conservatory of Music in Rio de Janeiro. Fernandez, who was also active as an orchestral and
choral conductor, shows strong national tendencies in his compositions. His work includes the opera
Malazarte, a symphonic poem Imbapara , and a symphonic suite on three popular themes. Among
Mignone ‘s works are the ballet~Maracatu de Chico Rei, Fantasias Brasileiras, and operas, one of which
contains his well-known dance Congada. Luciano Gallet (1893-1931), composer and folklorist, is espe-
cially known for his Estudos de Folklore and his excellent arrangements of Brazilian melodies.

Outstanding among the younger composers is Camargo Guarnieri (b. 1907) | of Sao Paulo, who has
written several symphonies, a concerto for piano and orchestra, chamber music, Cantata Tragica for or-
chestra and chorus, and a violin concerto which was awarded a prize (1942) in a competition among Latin

32

American composers sponsored by a Philadelphia music lover. In 1947 he won second prize in the
Reichold Contest for an American symphony. In 1942 he wrote a one-act opera Malazarte on the same
subject as the opera of Fernandez.

The main Brazilian music centers are Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo. In Rio are the National School
of Music, the director of which is Joamdia Sodre, the Conservatory of Music of Rio de Janeiro, and the
Teatro Municipal, where opera is presented. SSo Paulo has the Conservatorio Dramatico e Musical,
directed by Francisco Casabona, and is the center for the development of a fine group of pianists. One of
Brazil’s leading music educators, Fabiano Lozano, is supervisor of music in the SSLo Paulo schools.
Eleazar de Carvalho, well known in the United States, is the present conductor of the Orquestra Sinftfnica
Brasileira of Rio de Janeiro.

Brazil has produced two of the finest musicologists in the Hemisphere, both of whom have been
quoted above: Mario de Andrade (1893-1945), a pianist, critic, poet, and novelist, who has made impor-
tant studies in Brazilian folk music; and Luiz Heitor CorrSa de Azevedo (b. 1905), Librarian and Profes-
sor of Folklore at the National School of Music. In 1941-2 he served as consultant to the Music Division
of the Pan American Union in Washington, D. C. and from 1948, with a six months’ gap, June to Decem-
ber, 1952, has been Chief of the Music Section of UNESCO in Paris, France.

(Folk Song of Colombia)

EL DIA QUE YO NACI

Moderate

Autor desconocido

a
33

C. THE MUSIC OF TODAY IN THE ANTILLES

Dominican Republic

The music brought to Santo Domingo by the Spaniards apparently completely obliterated that of the
Indians, but it was itself transformed by the vigorous African qualities introduced by the Negroes. The
merging of Spanish and African rhythms resulted in a music with characteristics far removed from both
primitive African and Spanish origins.

Gustavo Duran writes: “In the 19th century, the influence of the Italian opera and of European ball-
room dances such as the mazurka, waltz, contre-danse, was added to the Negro influence in the cities.
The city ruled the country and rapidly set its taste. Cloyingly sweet melodies of Italian origin came then
into fashion. Under this new influence the traditional native rhythms of Santo Domingo became softer,
more melodious. The clear-cut Hispanic rhythms disappeared and the Negro rhythms lost their strong
haunting nature. The zapateo, the punto, the mangulina, the sets, the media tuna and other gay native
songs and dances authentically Criollo in rhythm, were forgotten. The waltz, the mazurka and other
foreign dances took their places. Among them, the danza predominated and today its derivative, the
merengue, is the most popular. It took many years before this dance was accepted as the typical Domini-
can dance, but at present it is the most popular in the Republic. ”

The Dominican Government has taken an active interest in fostering musical culture and education.
A National Conservatory is maintained by the State. The National Symphony was reorganized in 1941 under
government support, with the Spanish-born composer Enrique Casal Chapi as conductor. He was followed
by Abel Eisenberg and the present incumbent, Albatt Caggiano. The enterprising attitude of this orches-
tra is shown by the fact that the last half of each program is devoted to the works of Dominican composers.
Contests for compositions by national composers were initiated in 1944, with an extended series of con-
certs to demonstrate the Republic’s advance in music.

Numerous composers are at work and the younger ones are receiving opportunities for further study.
Outstanding figures include Jose de J. Ravelo (b. 1876), Luis E. Mena (b. 1895), Juan F. Garcia (b. 1892)^
Jose Dolores Ceron (b. 1897), Ramon Diaz (b. 1901), Luis Rivera (b. 1902) and Enrique Mejia Arredondo
(b. 1901). The Pan American Union published, as its Music Series No. 15, “Music .and Musicians of the
Dominican Republic, ” by J. M. Coopersmith.

Haiti

The dominant influence in Haitian music is African. The Negroes brought to Haiti as slaves came
from many parts of Africa; they belonged to many tribes and spoke many languages. Much of their native
culture was lost and their hundreds of dialects were merged in a patois that served both slaves and mas-
ters as a means of communication.

But the music of Africa persisted. “On the plantations or off, the Negroes never forgot the drum
rhythms of their own countries, nor their ancestors and deities, ” writes Harold Cour lander in Haiti Sing-
ing.* “They never forgot how to make fine drums. And whether the drum was of a Congo pattern, or Ibo,
or Arada, all men listened to it, and danced in the light of smoking oil lamps. ” People from different
tribes learned each other’s dances, but the culture of the Dahomeans finally dominated the rest.

“Today in the Haitian hills the old music fills the air, the old customs go on, and ancient deities are
abroad at night , ” Cour lander continues. “Drurnmers become one with their drums and the drums

* The University of North Carolina Press.

34

CEREMONIAL SONG OF HAITI

At the beginning of a ceremony, the person officiating takes a large raffia tray filled with a
mixture of roasted corn, peanuts, and coconut. This he divides into several portions. So*e he
places in a hollow tree, for the Spirits; some he scatters in each of the four directions
part for the Voodoo spirits, part for the Christian Lord. Next he himself must eat, and he
passes the food on to all those present. Then a circle is formed, and the Spirits of Heaven,
Earth, Water, Forest, and Fire are invited to join in the ceremony. They are invoked with a
clapping of hands, and weird dance steps. The first chant, Au nom du Pere, is an obvious mix-
ture of Voodoo and Catholic, and should of itself suffice to dispel the erroneous belief that
the followers of Voodoo have no belief in God.

Au Nom Du Pere

In the Name of the Father
Au nom du
In the rtdmc of trie

Fattier,

J
1 J

/

^

. /
1 J
^H
^z
^ 4 J J ‘
1

Saint Es-pril ,
Holy Ghost

Gem ym Bon Die )
There is a God,

Tflon-che Lo
Mis – ter Lo

co
^

Jfan , -nan ye –
Oh , oh yes-

Qan ytn Bon Die,
is a God,-

ZtZ – Zte
Z-U – lie

Van –
Dan

1
M J J
‘ J
=i
-+ -W- –
^xT3T

– fty
-.to,.

</fan, nan
Oh , oh

yes

yin
There is

Son
a

GDd,

77 Jferfrc

_ _ Ti Jean C
>flrrr – f o j *AI&n y ncn
i

i
Gan
fhere
yrr
is
i Bon Die,
a GncL
>an – to Oh oh
1
1 1 1 1
.. .
5 ~\ 1

Grarm &a – ta
Gram Ba – ta

norn du
In the name of the
Son

et Ju
And. ihe

> – pnrf
Holy Ghost

Gan ym Son
There is a God.

Reproduced from. The Voice of Haiti, by Laura Bowatan and LeRoy Antoine. Copyright 1938 by
Clarence Williams Music Pub. Co.. New York. Used by permission of the copyright owner.

come alive. People move and sing and vibrate with nature; they dance with each other, with their ances-
tors, and with old African gods ‘they have never forgotten. ”

There must, of course, have been countless different dances of African origin in Haiti two centuries
ago. Today folk dances and music of African origin are still closely integrated with ritual and may be
classified according to the ceremony to which they belong – those of the Vodoun, Petro, and Rada groups,
and so on. Drums are a vital element in all the dances and songs, and the type of drum used is as
characteristic as the music itself.

Some idea of the variety of drums common in Haiti today may be gained from describing those used
in the danse rada. This dance invariably uses three drums, the maman, seconde, and bula or bebe. The
drumheads are of heavy cowhide, held tightly by strong pegs, which vary in number in each of the three
drums. The drums themselves are hollow cylinders carved from wood, and the comparatively small
mouths make the percussion strong. Largest of the three is the maman, thirty-two to thirty- six inches
high and ten to twelve inches in diameter. It is played with one hand and a heavy stick, sometimes a
mallet. The seconde is next in size and is played with two hands, or one hand and a bowed stick. The
bula, the smallest of the three, is played with two thin sticks.

The malimba, another instrument of African origin, is made from a large wooden box and iron bands.
Over a hole cut in the box metal strips of varying length and pitch are fastened, and these are plucked to
produce M a pleasant and sometimes competent music. ” The tambour mar inguin, or mosquito drum, is
not actually a drum, but a large inverted tin buried in the earth so that the bottom is exposed. The music
is played upon a cord, attached to the tin and drawn taut to a stick placed obliquely in the earth. “The
mosquito drum is generally a child’s instrument. The men profess to be too grown up for it. But a real
skill is needed, and the men sometimes loiter around the mosquito drum to play a few measures when
they think no one will notice. ”

The foregoing passage does not, of course begin to cover the many songs and dances, the rhythms,
and the instruments that make up Haitian folk music. The fine art of music has not been extensively de-
veloped in Haiti. Justin Elie (1883-1931) and Ludovic Lamothe (b. 1882) are the best known composers.

Puerto Rico

Although not an independent political entity, Puerto Rico is included in this survey of Latin American
music because of its closely related cultural tradition, Its musical activities are as important as those of
some of the republics discussed above and its cultural personality is as well defined as that of the other
countries in the Americas.

As in Cuba, contact with Spain was kept alive in Puerto Rico from the beginning of the Spanish Con-
quest until the end of the 19th century. Negro influence in both countries transformed the- music imported
from Spain, and the similarity of their musical development was furthered by their close contact during
the Colonial Period. The instruments of a typical Puerto Rican orchestra are the same as those used in
Cuba, and many of the same dances and songs are popular in both countries.

For some reason, however, the Spanish tradition has been better preserved in Puerto Rico than in
Cuba. Mothers sing their children to sleep with lullabies that differ little from those sung by mothers in
Andalusia, Castile, or Galicia, and tell stories about traditional heroes known alike to the children of
Spain and Puerto Rico. The folklorist Marfa Cadilla de Martinez (1886-1951) has been the leading stu-
dent of this music.

An aguinaldo is a Christmas carol> sung usually by roving groups who go from house to house. It has
no definite form and may adopt any rhythm – some are gay and some are slow. Negro influence is out-
standing in the plena, a dance composed of two parts. One unchanging short refrain is sung by the chorus
and in the other part the solo singer narrates the story. Just as Negro influence is an essential charac-
teristic of the plena, Spanish influence characterizes the seis and its related song the marianda. Both of
these are for solo voice, either man or woman. As in Haiti, the fine art of music has not been highly de-

36

translation by
BUGS ROSS

Desde el fondo de mi alma

Deep Within My Soul’s Recesses
5.

SOPRANO

MEZZO
SOPRANO

ALTO

Tranquilo, come un coral ( J=69)
p espr*

Words Anonymous

Music bj
DOMINGO SANTA CRUZ, Op, 27

Des-deel fon-do
with-in

le-bro al re *
ve -ite -rate the

Des- deel fon – do
Deep with-in my
p espr*

ce-le – bro
Des* deel fon *
Deep wtth-in

do de mi al – ma
01 jf soul’s re – cess – es,
LT

cien na – ci

do,

pen –
Re

san – do

b’ring-

que de los

1

J J J. J’

I IMl I

al re – cien na –
rate the Lord of

ci – do,
Heav – en,

pen –

san – do que de loa

mem – ber – ing how to
al re – cien na
rate the Lord of

ci – do, pen
Scav – en, He

,* do que de los

mem – b’ring- how to *

IP
cie – los el
men here on

cie – los el
men here on

Sal – ra – dor ha re
earth a Sav-iour 4s
Sal * va-dor ha ye
earth a Son – iour is
m

do.
en.

ni

do.

Los gra * llos

The cocks that

Los ga – llos-.

The cocks crow

los el Sal * Ta-dor ha re – ni
here on earth a Sa+ – iour is

do*.

Los ga * Uos

The cocks crow –

DOMINGO SANTA CRUZ: First page of one of the Cantares de Pascua published in 1952 by Peer
International Corporation of New York.

37

(Cuban Rumba)

Papa Montero

Reproduced from Popular Cuban Music, by Emilio Grenet. Havana, Carasa and Co., 1939

veloped. Under the dynamic leadership of Augusto Rodriguez, a remarkable choral organization has been
active for several years,and in 1948 and 1953 made short tours of the United States.

Cuba

In Cuba, the Negro influence in folk and popular music is so intense and persistent that it quickly
makes basic Spanish material unrecognizable. Thus what in Spain was a freely constructed song rhythm
becomes ; under Cuban influence, a dance rhythm with a fixed pattern; any Spanish dance loses its clearly
defined contours and the almost geometrical precision of its rhythm f and is transformed through syncopa-
tion into something far more complex.

Cuban music preserves only certain old Spanish modes and general tendencies of expression as a re-
minder of its source, as, for example, melodies exhibiting Phrygian, Dorian, and Mixolydian scales so
typical of many Spanish folk songs. There is also a tendency, as among the peasants of Spain, to sing the
highest pitch in a nasal, shrill voice.

The popular bolero probably stems from the Spanish, but almost no trace of the original is left. The
mood is gay, humorous, and sophisticated; and the Cuban and Dominican forms are practically identical.
The Puerto Rican bolero,, on the other hand, has a distinctly sentimental quality.

The conga, which has recently enjoyed popularity on the dance floors of the United States, is used in
Cuba for the dances of the Carnival festivities. In Havana, at Carnival time, the gayly costumed paraders
dance through the streets while the brass bands, drums, and beils play the conga.

The rumba is entirely African in origin. Rhythm is the leading quality, for which the melody serves
as a superficial cloak. The text usually consists of meaningless phrases and syllables designed to follow
and emphasize the rhythm. The punto is a song of pure Spanish origin, sung in a high register with much
freedom of expression and of rhythm. It is accompanied by the bandurria, a sort of mandolin, and the
claves, two hardwood sticks which are beaten together.

African elements, so dominant in Cuban folk music, have been employed to good advantage by the v com-
posers Amadeo Roldan (1900-1939) and Alejandro Garcia Caturla (1906-1940), whose untimely deaths were
a great loss to American music. Both men were early pupils of Pedro Sanjuan, a Spanish musician for-
merly active in Cuba and later in the United States. In delineating Cuban folk melodies and rhythms in
their compositions, Roldan frequently employed African instruments in his scores, while Garcia Caturla
generally used the instrumentation of the standard orchestra.

Roldan founded the Havana Chamber Music Society in 1921 and was first violinist of the Havana String
Quartet. In 1932 he became conductor of the Philharmonic Orchestra of Havana, in which he had pre-
viously served as concertmaster. His works include La Rebambaramba, an Afro- Cuban ballet, songs to
the poems of the great Cuban Negro poet Nicolas Guillen, and the choreographic mystery El Milagro d
Anaquille.

Caturla, like many other Latin American musicians, carried on a double profession, in this case that
of musician and lawyer, and was the district judge at Remedies at the time of his death. Writing on the

development of Cuban music, he said: ” to arrive at a genuinely Cuban music, it is necessary to

work with living folklore. This should be polished until the crudities and exterior influences fall away. . . . Tt
Among his compositions are Yamba-O, a symphonic poem for full orchestra; Tres Danzas Cub anas ,
Bembi and Primera Suite Cubana.

Jose Ardevol (b. 1911 in Barcelona, Spain, but now a Cuban citizen) has lived in Havandjsince 1930,
becoming known as teacher and leader of a distinguished group of young Cuban composers, icluding, a-
mong others, Julian Orbon, Harold Gramatges and Hilario Gonzalez. Ardevol himself is oift of the out-
. standing composers in the hemisphere and won, in 1949, the Ricordi Americana prize for aAymphony. A
complete list of his works has been published by the Pan American Union in the Boletin de Musica y Artes
Visuales, No. 29-30, July-August, 1952.

Joaquin Nin y Castellaixos (1879-1949) was an eminent pianist, musicologist and composer of piano
and chamber music. He was the author of several works about music and edited many hitherto unknown
works of 18th century Spanish composers. His son, Joaquin Nin- Culm ell (b. 1908) is also a pianist and
composer. He has written piano pieces, one piano quintette, songs for voice and string quintette and in
1942 completed a concerto for piano and orchestra. He is now chairman of the Department of Music in the
University of California (Berkeley).

Ernesto Lecuona (b. 1896) is well known as a writer of popular songs. Studies in Cuban music have
been made by Fernando Ortiz (b. 1890), Emilio Grenet (d. 1941), and Eduardo Sanchez de Fuentes (1874-
1944). The best brief history of Cuban music is by Alejo Carpentier.

(Folk Song of Venezuela)

ESTA NOCHE SERENA

Lento

Ea – ta no. che se

re na,_

Version de Vicente E. Sojo

Sin luz de

por -que toe. res mi

*

cie – lo,_

^g

yo, tu lu –
Las cuerdas de mi lira,

alborozada,

preludian armonias

en la alborada,

para que en ritmo suave,

enternecido,

llegue a tu oldo. (bis)

Cuando se abren tus ojos

en tu aposento,

se escucha en la campina

dulce contento;

y la yerba se enjoya

con el rodo,

y tin suspiro se escapa

del pecho mio. (bis)

D.C.al Fine

Abre, nifia, las hojas

de tu ventana;

abre y ver^s los ampos

de la mananaj

asomando a la loma

ya viene el dla,

por qui tu no te asomas,

amada mla? (bis)

Asdmate a la reja,

jquiero mirarte!

jcomo al cielo la estrella

quiero adorarte!

porque tu eres mi cielo,

yo, tu lucero,

que por tf me desvelo,

que por ti muero. (bis)
Reproduced fro* “Primero Cuaderno de Can clones Populares Venezolana
Caracas, Ninisterio de Educacibn Nacional, Direccidn de Cu.ltura, 19

40

APPENDICES

SOME RUDIMENTS OF SPANISH PRONUNCIATION. Spanish is spoken in:

Argentina

Bolivia

Chile

Colombia

Costa Rica

Cuba

Dominican Republic

Ecuador

El Salvador

Guatemala

Honduras

Mexico

Nicaragua

Panama

Paraguay

Peru

Uruguay

Venezuela

A word has as many syllables as it has single vowels (Ha-ba-na) or vowels and diphthongs (Bue-nos
Ai-res). A diphthong is a combination of two vowels.

Vowel or diphthong

a
e
i
o
u
u after g is silent before e and i, unless it has a

diaeresis – U. Then it IToundiTlike w – gilira

(gweerah)
ai
au
ei
eu

ia *

io
ie
iu
oi
ou
ua
ue
ui
uo
y is sometimes a vowel, equal to Spanish i .

Sound in Spanish

ah

a in gate
ee in seen
o in bone
oo in tool

i in site

ow in s-cow

ay in stay

eh-oo, run together

ya in yacht

yo in yodel

yea

you

oy in boy

oh-oo,~run together

wah

way

wee

woe

Consonants* A number of consonants differ slightly from English consonants in pronunciation; this differ-
ence must be learned by ear. In addition:

c is like k before a, o, and u.

c is like s before e and i.

ch is one letter, pronounced like ch in church.

g; is like g in gate before a, o, and u.

g is like German ch before e and i.

(Those unfamiliar with the German sound may simplify this sound to h, as in he. )
h by itself is always silent.
Jis always like German ch, or Spanish g before e and i.

41

11 is one letter, usually pronounced like y in yet.

ft is like ny in canyon.

q is always followed by u. The two letters together are pronounced like k.

rr is one letter, strongly trilled.

y as a consonant is like y in yet.

s^ and z^ are always like ss, in Spanish America.

Stress. When there is a written accent, the stress falls on the syllable indicated. Alcantara.

When a word ends in a vowel, in n, or in s, the stress falls on the next to the last syllable. Clara;
regiones. ~”

When a word ends in a consonant not n or s, the stress falls on the last syllable. Meridional,

Note: Ae, ao, ea, ee, eo, oa and oe (combinations of a, o, and e) do not form diphthongs, but two
syllables; e. g. ji-re-a, Bil-ba-o, Bal-bo-a.

PORTUGUESE PRONUNCIATION

Portuguese is the language of Brazil, long a colony of Portugal.

Portuguese pronunciation is difficult to represent phonetically, except by standard phonetic symbols,
unfamiliar to many people. It has a number of nasal sounds; ^has the sound of z in azure; Ih is equiva-
lent to the Spanish 11, and nh to the Spanish fi. “””

FRENCH is the language of Haiti.
(Puerto Rico)

El Capitan de un Barco

i- fl ca -\>i -I5r dean bar-co, ca -ram-ba. mees-cn-

O – \*r\ \t> f/i* J”Tbe _~te / _ l_ * -*^

^*- r *^ v^y f * i ^-^ f VL – .^-.., .^4 f /v^j-vn

4- e – SSPf^ 5 “T c > CA-ram-ba, tn o – .,_
^fejn-M 4<el con-de ; ca -ram- ba coo a -que\

/*rt _r1lA *^%l MVhm .rfliM _ -. ”

co

***’ M^ , *-a – loin- p^, wi) a -QUCl

TO-drt- , ca-r*m-bd, me ftt-ycal
que si jo
guerne CA
ftas-15
coo un

. ca-raro-ba. ca-^ar- TDC. con fel.

~)?*’ & e “^ cor) tl.

-pa, lo lle-ftoja ^a-ber.

-ba, me qui – so ma
Reproduced from Cantarcs Espanoles. 6y Sofia Novo*. Ha*tings-on-ffudson, Gessler
Publishing Company. Copyright iS42. Used by permission of the publisher.

42

SELECTIVE LIST OF REFERENCES IN ENGLISH

on
LATIN AMERICAN MUSIC

1. Baker’s Biographical Dictionary of Musicians:

Comp. by Theodore Baker. 4th ed. , rev. and enl. New York, G. Schirmer, Inc., 1940.
A supplement was published in 1949.

2. Boggs, Ralph Steele.

Folklore Bibliography. In Southern Folklore Quarterly. (March nos. of every year, 1937 ).
In each annual installment there is a section on poetry, music, dances and games, in which
there is a subsection devoted to Latin America.

3. Bowman, Laura, and Le Roy Antoine.

The Voice of Haiti. . .An unusual collection of original native ceremonial songs, invocations,
voodoo chants, drum beats and rhythms, stories of traditions, etc., of the Haitian people.
New York, Clarence Williams Music Publishing Co. , Inc. , 1938. 41 p. Melodies without piano
accompaniment; words in the original language and English.

4. Brewster, Mrs. Mela Sedillo.

Mexican and New Mexican Folk Dances. Albuquerque, University of New Mexico Press, 1938.
47 p. Includes music and dance directions for La Chilena, Los Viejitos, La Mestiza, La
Varsoviana, La Camila, El Jilote, La Raspa or Las Inditas, La Vaquerita, El Chote, and La
Cuna. Also contains directions for costuming and dancing the Jarabe Tapatio and the Sandunga.

5. Carpentier, Ale jo.

Variations on a Cuban Theme. In Americas, vol. 2, no. 2 ^February 1950), p. 20-23, 38-39.
Author of the outstanding book on the history of music in Cuba presents a brief survey of contem-
porary music in that country.

6. Chase, Gilbert.

A Guide to Latin American Music. Washington, D. C. , The Library of Congress, 1945. 274 p.
A bibliography with 2699 entries, arranged, with prefatory remarks, by country. Index of
authors and subjects and list of periodicals. A second, revised and enlarged edition is in pre-
paration in the Division of Music and Visual Arts of the Pan American Union.

7. Chase, Gilbert.

The Music of Spain. New York, W. W. Norton & Co., 1941. 375 p. Chapter XVII: Hispanic
Music in the Americas. With, substantial bibliography, p. 257-272.

8. Chavez, Carlos.

The Music of Mexico. In: Herring, Hubert and Katherine Terrill, eds. The Genius of Mexico.
New York, Committee on Cultural Relations with Latin America, 1931. p. 104-107. ‘ The author
divides Mexican music into several epochs and describes each one.

9. Chavez, Carlos.

Revolt in Mexico. In Modern Music, vol. 13, no. 3 (March- April 1936), p. 35-40. An exposition
of renovations in the teaching of music to conservatory students, showing a departure from tradi-
tional academic training to an investigation of folk and indigenous themes.

43

10. Chavez, Carlos.

Toward a New Music; Music and Electricity. Translated by Herbert Weinstock. New York,
W. W, Norton & Co. , 1937. 180 p. An investigation into the physical bases of music reproduc-
tion through the phonograph, radio, sound film and other electrical means.

11. Cooper smith, J. M.

Music and Musicians of the Dominican Republic. Washington, D. C. , Pan American Union, 1949.
146 p. (its Music Series, No. 15) Brief historical survey; includes 17 music notations, 5 plates,
bibliography and index of persons and subjects. English and Spanish texts.

12. Copland, Aaron.

Our New Music; Leading Composers in Europe and America. New York, London, Whittle sey
House, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1941. 305 p. “Composer from Mexico: Carlos
Chavez”: p. 202-211.

13. Corrfca de Azevedo, Luiz Heitor.

Brief History of Music in Brazil. Washington, D. C. , Pan American Union, 1948. 92 p. (its
Music Series, No. 16) Leading composers of Brazil are given brief critical notice in their rela-
tions to the development of the fine art of music in that country. English and Portuguese texts.
Bibliography.

14. Courlander, Harold.

Haiti Singing. Chapel Hill, N. C. University of North Carolina Press, 1939. 273 p. A study of
folk music, with descriptions of native ceremonial dances. Well illustrated.

15. Courlander, Harold.

Musical Instruments of Cuba. In The Musical Quarterly, vol. 28, no. 2 (April 1942), p. 227-240.
A discussion of origin and use. Well illustrated.

16. Courlander, Harold.

Musical Instruments of Haiti. In The Musical Quarterly, vol. 27, no. 3 (July 1941), p. 371-383.
A discussion of origin and use. Well illustrated.

17. Cowell, Henry, ed.

American Composers on American Music. Stanford University, Stanford University Press, 1933.
226 p. Contents include: Carlos Chavez, Mexican composer, by Aaron Copland; The Music of
Mexico, by Carlos Chavez; The Development of Cuban Music, by Alejandro Garcia Caturla; The
Artistic Position of the American Composer, by Amadeo Roldan.

18. Densmore, Frances.

Music of the Tule Indians of Panama. Washington, The Smithsonian Institution, 1926. 39 p.
(Smithsonian miscellaneous collections, v. 77, no. 11. ) A study showing the place of vocal and
instrumental music in the social system.

19. Densmore, Frances.

Yuman and Yaqui music. Washington, U. S. Govt. Print. Off., 1932. 216 p. (Smithsonian
Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology. Bulletin 110) An ethnological study of music and the
dance among tribes living along the Colorado River and in northwestern Mexico.

20. Duran, Gustavo.

14 Traditional Spanish Songs from Texas. Washington, D. C. , Pan American Union, 1942. 20 p.
(Its Music Series, no. 4. ) The major portion of this book consists of music transcribed from
recordings made by members of the Lomax family and deposited in the Archive of American
Folksong, Library of Congress. Preface, introduction and head-notes provide material on the
origin of the songs.

44

21. Duran, Gustavo.

Recordings of Latin American Songs and Dances, an annotated selected list of popular and folk
music. Washington D. C. , Pan American Union, Division of Music and Visual Arts. 2nd edition,
revised and enlarged by Gilbert Chase, 1950. Descriptions of dance and song forms character-
istic of the different countries of L,atin America, with a list of phonograph records exemplifying
many of the forms.

22. Fergusson, Erna.

Fiesta in Mexico. New York, Knopf, 1934. 267 p. Includes descriptions of Mexican dances,
with scattered references to popular music.

23. Gallop, Rodney.

Mexican Mosaic. London, Faber & Faber, 1939. 299 p. A travel book in which the author
describes native festivals and music.

24. Gallop, Rodney.

The Music of Indian Mexico. In The Musical Quarterly, vol. 25, no. 2 (April 1939), p. 210-225.
A discussion of the influence of European art-music on Mexican Indian music and a description of
ancient and modern instruments. With music and other illustrations.

25. Gallop, Rodney.

Otomi Indian Music from Mexico. In The Musical Quarterly, vol. 26, no. 1 (January 1940), p.
87-100. A spectator’s account of traditional singing in ceremonial rites and customs. With 30
examples of Indian melodies.

26. Genin, Auguste.

Notes on the Dances, Music, and Songs of the Ancient and Modern Mexicans. In: Smithsonian
Institution. Annual report, 1920. (Washington, 1922), p. 657-677. An ethnological study includ-
ing descriptions of instruments and plates showing costumes of Indian dancers.

27. Grenet, Emilio, ed.

Popular Cuban Music; 80 revised and corrected compositions, together with an essay on the evolu-
tion of music in Cuba. Prologue by Dr. Eduardo Sanchez de Fuentes. Translated by R. Phillips.
Havana, Carasa y Cia. , 1939. 198 p. A discussion of rhythms in Cuban music, with 80 examples
for piano and voice.

28. Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Edited by H. C. Colles. Supplementary volume.

New York, The MacMillan Co. , 1940. 688 p.

29. Hague, Eleanor.

Latin American Music, Past and Present. Santa Ana, Cal. , The Fine Arts Press, 1934. 98 p.
A history of music from pre-conquest times through the colonial period to the present day.
Emphasis is placed upon Indian and folk music, dances and instruments. Bibliography: p. 91-98.

30. Hague, Eleanor.

Spanish American Folk Songs. New York, The American Folklore Society, Memoirs, . .vol. x,
1917. 115 p . Contains melodies of 95 songs collected in the southwest United States and in
Mexico.

31. Herring, Hubert, ed.

Renascent Mexico, edited by Hubert Herring and Herbert Weinstock. New York, Covici Friede,
1935, 322 p. Contents include: Mexican- folk dances, by Frances Toor, p. 179-198; frlexican
music, by Carlos Chavez, p. 199-218; and The fiesta as a work of art, by Rene d’Har none our t,
p. 219-232. Without music. Intro, by Ernest Gruening.

45

32. Herskovits, Melville Jean.

Life in a Haitian Valley. New York, London, Alfred A. Knopf, 1937. 350, xix p. Chapter X:
Vodun worship; the dance. Contains descriptions of ceremonial customs and texts of some songs;
without music.

33. The International Cyclopedia of Music and Musicians. Edited by Oscar Thompson. New York, Dodd,

Mead & Co. , 1949.

34. Izikowitz, Karl Gustav.

Musical and Other Sound Instruments of the South American Indians, a Comparative Ethnographical
Study. Goteborg, Elanders Boktryckeri Aktiebolag, 1935. 433 p. Text, tables and illustrations
are invaluable to the study of this subject.

35. Johnston, Edith.

Regional Dances of Mexico. Dallas, B. Upshaw and Co., 1935. 78 p. Includes music and dance
directions for Los Viejitos, Jarabe Michoacano, La Chilena Guerrerense, and La Botella. A car-
nival sketch in simple Spanish dialogue is provided, as well as suggestions for Pan American pro-
grams.

36. Labastille, Irma.

Bailes nacionales: Latin- American Folk Dances. New York, Edward B. Marks Music Corpora-
tion, 1943. 30 p. This booklet contains directions for dancing la huella, la firmeza and zamba of
Argentina, el pericon of Uruguay, pasillo and bambuco of Colombia, joropo of Venezuela, mari-
nera of Peru, and chiapanecas and los viejitos of Mexico. It accompanies Bost Record Album ES4.

37. Labastille, Irma.

Under the Southern Stars, a Latin American Fiesta. New York, Chicago, Silver Burdett Co. ,
1941. 18 p. Contains dance directions for the bambuco of Colombia, and palapala of Argentina
(p. 5-6). The music to accompany these dances is to be found in the author’s book Canciones Tipi-
cas, also published by Silver Burdett.

38. Larsen, Helga.

The Mexican Indian Flying Pole Dance. In National Geographic Magazine, vol. 71, no. 3 (March
1937), p. 387-400. A detailed description by a spectator; with illustrations.

39. Library of Congress. The Hispanic Foundation. Handbook of Latin American Studies. (1935-1950).

Cambridge, Mass. , Harvard University Press. All volumes, except nos. 1 and 4 contain selec-
tive, annotated list of music and books on music, with brief, introductory “General Statements”.

40. Liscano, Juan.

Hear the People Sing. In Americas, vol. 1, no. 5 (July 1949), p. 12-15, 34-35. Pioneer Vene-
zuelan folk music collector recounts personal experiences. There are some excellent photographs.

41. Luper, Albert T.

The Music of Argentina. Washington, D. C. , Pan American Union, 1950. 10 p. A brief introduc-
tory survey reprinted from Music Series no. 5, revised. Mimeographed.

42. Luper, Albert T.

The Music of Brazil. Washington, D. C. , Pan American Union, 1950. Reprint and revision. 13
p. A survey, with a list of Brazilian music available in the United States, and bibliography.
Mimeographed.

43. Mattfeld, Julius.

The Folk Music of the Western Hemisphere; a list of references in the New York Public Library.
In Bulletin of the New York Public Library, vol. 28, no. 11 (Nov. 1924), p. 799-830; no. 12 (Dec.

46

1924), p. 864-889. Entries are grouped under headings such as Canadian, Eskimo, Indian (North
America, not including Mexico), Indian (Central and South America, including Mexico), Latin
American, etc.

44. Mayer-Serra, Otto.

The Present State of Music in Mexico. Washington, D. C. , Pan American Union, 1946. XIII, 50
P^ (Its Music Series, No. 14) A brief survey of nativism, nationalism and universalism in rela-
tion to primitive, folk, popular and fine-art idioms, and to the men who have been leaders in
Mexican music. English and Spanish texts.

45. Mayer-Serra, Otto.

Silvestre Revueltas and Musical Nationalism in Mexico. In The Musical Quarterly, vol. 27, no. 2
(April 1941), p. 123-145. An analysis and appreciation of Revueltas’ music, with abundant music
examples. Also published as a reprint by G. Schirmer, Inc. , New York.

46. Menendez, Margarita.

Public School Music in Cuba. In Music Educators Journal, vol. xxx, no. 3 (Jan. 1944), p. 27-28.
The author discusses her teacher -training courses in Havana.

47. Merida, Carlos.

Pre-Hispanic Dance and Theatre. In Theatre Arts Monthly, vol. 22, no. 8 (Aug. 1938), p. 561-
568. Description of ancient Mexican dances.

48. Milinowski, Marta.

Teresa Carrefio, “By the Grace of God”. New Haven, Yale University Press; London, H. Milford,
Oxford University Press, 1940. 410 p. Biography of this famous Venezuelan pianist (1853-1917).

49. Pan American Union. Americas. A magazine published by the Pan American Union contained each

month, until April, 1952, a list of phonograph records of current Latin American popular music
compiled by Pru Devon .

50. . Music Division. Carlos Chavez: catalog of his works, with a preface by

Herbert Weinstock, Washington, D. C. , 1944. xxxii, 15 p. (Its Music Series, No. 10.) An analy-
sis of the work of the great Mexican composer-conductor; with English and Spanish texts.

51. . Some Latin American Festivals & Folk Dances. Washington, D. C. , Pan
American Union, 1939, 20 p. Contents: 1. Fiestas in Peru, by Francisco J. Hernandez. II. Car-
nival in Brazil, by Heitor Bastos Tigre. III. Folk dances of Spanish America. IV. Folk dances in
Mexico. Reprinted from the Bulletin of the Pan American Union, February and November 1939.

52. Pedrosa, Mario.

Brazilian Music from Bumba-meu-boi to Opera and Villa- Lobos. In Theatre Arts Monthly, vol.
23, no. 5 (May 1939), p. 363-368. The author points out characteristics of Brazilian music deriv-
ing from the Indian, Portuguese, and Negro cultures.

53. Plaza, Juan Bautista.

Music in Caracas during the Colonial Period (1770-1811). In The Musical Quarterly, vol. 29, no.
2 (April 1943), p. 198-213. An examination of Venezuelan sacred and secular production and an
introduction to the more notable composers of the period.

54. Ramos, Arthur.

The Negro in Brazil. . .translated from the Portuguese by Richard Pattee. Washington, D. C. ,
The Associated Publishers, Inc., 1939. 203 p. M The Negro in .Music 11 : p. 107-121.

55. Saminsky, Lazare.

Below the Equator: Indo-Latin Forms and Figures. In Musical America, vol. 61, no. 3 (February
10, 1941), p. 219-220. An analysis of the works of certain South American composers; with music
examples.

47

56. Sandi, Luis.

Music Education in Mexico. In Music Educators Journal, vol. xxix, no. 2 (Nov. -Dec. 1942), p.
13-14. The author sets forth the aims of music education in the federal schools and outlines the
program followed through 6 years of primary instruction and 2 years of secondary instruction.

57. Schwendener, Norma, and Averil Tibbels.

Legends &c Dances of Old Mexico New York, A. S. Barnes and Co. , Inc., 1934. Ill p. Legends
and material on the origin of Mexican dances, with directions for dancing the Jarabe, Huapango,
Danza de los Tecomates, Las Sembradoras, Los Matlanchines, Los Moros, Los Viejitos, Los Ne-
gritos, La Virgen y las Fieras, Los Apaches, Los Inditos, Danza de la Mujer Apache. Some of
these dances are performed by men only. Illustrations of costumes are included. Music is lim-
ited to a few measures of melody for each dance.

58. Seeger, Charles.

Inter -American Relations in the Field of Music. In Music Educators Journal, vol. 27, no. 5.
(Mar. -Apr. 1941), p. 17-18, 64-65. Suggestions for developing inter -American relations through
, music, by the chief of the Music Division, Pan American Union.

59. Seeger, Charles.

Music and Musicology in the New World. In Hinrichsen’s Musical Year-Book, vol. VI, 1949-50.
London, Hinrichs en Edition Limited, 1949. p. 35-36. Brief survey of the total music activity in
the hemisphere.

60. Shambaugh, Mary Effie.

Folk Festivals for Schools and Playgrounds. Music arranged by Anna Pearl Allison. New York,
A. S. Barnes and Co. , 1932. 155 p. Mexican dances: La Jesucita, p. 50-53; La Cucaracha, p.
54-57; with directions and music.

61. Shedd, Margaret.

Carib dance patterns. In Theatre Arts Monthly, vol. 17, no. 1 (Jan. 1933), p. 65-77. A specta-
tor’s impressions of native Negro festival dances in rural Cuba. Illustrated.

62. Shedd, Margaret.

Conquistadores Conquistados, a dance of the Guatemala Highlands, In Theatre Arts Monthly, vol.
23, no. 5 (May 1939J, p. 371-376. A spectator’s description of a Guatemalan festival centering
about a dance which depicts the story of the last Quiche” stand against the Spaniards.

63. Slonimsky, Nicolas.

Music of Latin America. New York, Thomas Y. Crowell Co. , 1945. 374 p. Humorous account of
a “musical fishing trip” to all of the 20 Latin American countries. Contains brief remarks upon
the lives and works of nearly 300 composers.

64.

65.

Music Under the Southern Cross. In Christian Science Monitor, weekly magazine section (March
18, 1939), p. 8-9. Biographical material on South American composers and musicians. Well
illustrated with portraits.

Music Where the Americas Meet. In Christian Science Monitor, weekly magazine section (June 8,
1940), p. 8-9. Biographical material on Mexico and Central American composers and musicians.
Well illustrated with portraits.

66. .

South America’s Constellation of Composers. In Musical America, vol. 60, no. 3 (February 10,
1940), p. 281-283, 286-287. Biographical data, with portraits. Also published as a reprint by
Musical America Corporation, under the title “South American Composers”.

48

67. Slonimsky, Nicolas.

Viewing a Terra Incognita of Music. In Musical America, vol. 61, no. 11 (June 1941), p. 14-17.
A review of the work of Mexican and Central American composers; with portraits.

68. Smith, Carleton Sprague.

The Song Makers. In Survey Graphic, vol. 30, no. 3 (March 1941), p. 179-183. A review of
Latin American “rural folk music, urban popular music, and art music”. The author also touches
on other forms of artistic expression in the Americas.

69.

What Not to Expect of South America. In Musical America, vol. 61, no. 3 (February 10, 1942).
Suggestions to North American artists who plan concert tours of Latin America.

70. Stevenson, Robert.

Music in Mexico. New York, Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1952. 300 p. A historical survey
divided into three principal epochs, (l) the Pre-Spanish, ending at 1521, (2) the Colonial, extending
from 1521 until 1810, and (3) the Independence, lasting from 1810 until the present time.

71. Thompson, Leila Fern. comp.

Partial List of Latin American Music Obtainable in the United States. Washington, D. C. , Pan
American Union, 1948. 57 p. with supplement no. 1, 17 p. , bound in. (Its Music Series No. 1,
3rd ed. rev. & enl. ) Contains indices and list of publishers.

72.

Selected List of Latin American Song Books and References for Guidance in Planning Programs of
Music and Dance”! (Eighth edition. ) Washington, D. C. , Pan American Union, 1951. 12 p.

73. Toor, Frances.

Treasury of Mexican Folkways. New York, Crown Publishers, 1947. 566 p. Part 3, “Music,
Verse, and Dances, ” contains a number of music notations and illustrations of singers and dancers.

74. Weinstock, Herbert.

Carlos Chavez. In The Musical Quarterly, vol. 22, no. 4 (Oct. 1936), p. 435-445. Biographical
data and an appreciation of his work.

75. Who’s Who in Latin America. Edited by Percy A. Martin. . .Stanford University, Calif. , Stanford

University Press; London, H. Milford, Oxford University Press, 1940. 558 p. A biographical
dictionary of the outstanding living men and women of Latin America.

76.

Edited by Ronald Hilton. 3rd. ed. revised and enlarged. Stanford University, Calif. , Stanford
University Press; Chicago, 111., The A. N. Marquis Co., London: Geoffrey Cumberlege, Oxford
University Press. Parti, Mexico, 1946. 130 p. Part II, Central America and Panama, 1945.
103 p. Part IV, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, 1945. 209 p. Part VI, Brazil, 1948. 269 p.

77. Zanzig, Augustus D.

Music’s Good Neighbor lines s in the Americas. In Recreation, vol. 25, no. 1 (April 1941), p. 3-10,
50. A discussion of projects undertaken throughout the United States in the interests of Latin
American music. With suggestions to group leaders for further developing inter -American music
consciousness.

49

SELECTIVE LIST OF LATIN AMERICAN SONG BOOKS

Baron, Maurice (arranger)

CALYPSO SONGS OF THE WEST INDIES, by Massie Patterson and Lionel Belasco. Free transcrip-
tion by Maurice Baron. New York, M. Baron Co. , 1943. 25 p.

Voice and piano arrangements of 12 songs with words in the original dialect and English.
For high school and college students and adults.
Available from the publisher, 8 West 45th Street, New York 19, N. Y. $1.50

Bowman, Laura

THE VOICE OF HAITI, by Laura Bowman and Le’Roy Antoine. An unusual collection of original na-
tive ceremonial songs, invocations, voodoo chants, drum beats and rhythms, stories of traditions,
etc. of the Haitian people. New York, Clarence Williams Music Publishing Co. , Inc. , 1938. 41 p.
Consists chiefly of ‘unaccompanied melodies with words in the original language and English. These
songs were collected during the compiler’s six months’ visit to the interior of Haiti.
For senior high school students and adults.
Available from the publisher, 50 West 57th St. , New York, N. Y. $2. 00

BrandSto, Jose Vieira (arranger)

FOLK SONGS OF BRAZIL. With English texts and translations of explanations by Max T. Krone and

Beatrice Perham Krone, Chicago, Neil A. Kjos Music Co. , 1947, 47 p. (A World in Tune. Book 5)

10 songs for two or three voices, with piano accompaniment. Easy to medium difficult. English and

Portuguese words. Includes instructions in Portuguese pronunciation and suggestions for playing

Brazilian percussion instruments. Some of the songs include simple dance directions.

For upper elementary and high school students.

Available from the publisher, 14 West Lake St. , Chicago, III. 60 cents

CANCIONES PANAMERICANAS: Songs of the Americas. New York, Silver Bur dett Co. , 1942. 42 p.
Piano accompaniments and brief descriptions of one song from each Republic, with these additions:
two songs from Haiti, two from Canada and five from the United States. Some of the Songs are
arranged for two voices. Words in the original language with English translations. A list of corre-
lated recordings is appended.
Illustrated.

For upper elementary and junior and senior high school students.
Available from the publisher, 45 East 17th St. , New York. 72 cents

Cugat, Xavier and Ricardo Romero

THE OTHER AMERICAS, Album of typical Central American and South American songs and dances.

New York, Edward B. Marks Music Corp. , 1938. 64 p.

Piano accompaniments to 18 popular songs and dances. Descriptive comments introduce the reader

to dance forms.

For senior high school students and adults.

Available from the publisher, RCA Building, Radio City, New York. $1. QO

Dickinson, Charles A. (compiler)

LAS POSADAS. . . Songs of Christinas in Mexico as remembered and sung by Miguel Vera Written

and illustrated at Padua Hills in 1935 by Charles A. Dickinson. Claremont, Calif , Padua Hills

Theatre, 1935. 16 p.

A foreword by Bess A. Garner of the Padua Hills Theatre describes the festival of Las Posadas.

Contains 8 songs with piano accompaniment and Spanish words. English translation included.

For senior high school students and adults.

Available from Padua Institute, Clarernont, California. $ 2 00

50

Duran, Gustavo

14 TRADITIONAL SPANISH SONGS FROM TEXAS. From recordings made in Texas 1934-1939 by

John A. , Ruby T. , and Alan Lomax. Washington, D. C. , Pan American Union, 1942. 20 p. (Music

Series No. 4)

Unaccompanied melodies including 5 Christmas carols; some arranged for two voices; Spanish words

throughout; prefatory and explanatory notes preceding each song provide excellent historical material.

For senior high school students and adults.

Available from the Pan American Union. 30 cents

LA HORA DEL CANTO. New York, Edward B. Marks Music Corp. , 1942. 55 p.

26 songs from Mexico, Cuba, Argentina and Chile, selected for students of Spanish. Piano accom-
paniments with Spanish words.

For junior and senior high school students of Spanish.
Available from the publisher, RCA Building, New York, N. Y. 50 cents

Krone, Beatrice and Max.

SPANISH AND LATIN AMERICAN SONGS, Book 1. Chicago, Neil A. Kjos Music Co. , 1942. 48 p.

“A collection of easy arrangements of Spanish, Central and South American folk songs for either

mixed voices, two treble voices or two changed voices. ” English and Spanish words to all songs but

the Brazilian one, which has English words only.

For senior high school and college students and glee clubs.

Available from the publisher, 14 West Lake St. , Chicago, HI. 60 cents

Labastille, Irma (compiler)

CANCIONES TIPICAS. New York, Silver Burdett Co. , 1941. 48 p.

Piano accompaniments to 19 characteristic Latin American songs; words in the original language -with

English translations. Explanatory notes and illustrations precede each song.

For junior and senior high school students and adults.

Available from the publishers, 45 East 17th St. , New York, N. Y. 72 cents

Labastille, Irma (compiler)

RECUERDO LATINOAMERICANO (Memories of Latin America). Album of folk songs for voice and

piano, with original Spanish text and English adaptations. New York, Edward B. Marks Music Corp. ,

1943. 64 p.

Songs from Argentina, Chile, Cuba, Peru, and Ecuador.

For senior high school and college students and adults.

Available from the publisher, RCA Building, New York, N. Y. $1. 00

THE LATIN AMERICAN SONG BOOK. Boston, Ginn & Co. , 1942. 128 p. A collection of 72 folk and
traditional songs with piano accompaniment and original words with English translations. Some of
the songs are arranged for two voices. Explanatory notes in English and illustrations in color.
For elementary and junior high school students.
Available from the publisher, Statler Building, Boston, Mass. 60 cents

Letelier, Alfonso

8 CANCIONES CORALES (Para cuatro voces mixtas, a capella). Montevideo, Uruguay, Editorial

Cooperativa Interamericana de Compositores, 1941. 18 p.

Songs for four mixed voices (SATB) a capella, by a contemporary Chilean composer. Three

Christmas carols are included; Spanish words throughout.

For high school and college glee clubs or students of Spanish and adults.

Available from American Music Center, 250 West 57th St., New York, N. Y. $1.45

51

Luce, Allena (compiler)

CANCIONES POPULARES. New York, Silver Burdett & Co. , 1921. 138 p.

An excellent early compilation divided into four parts. 1. Puerto Rican songs. 2. Songs of Cuba,
Spain and Mexico. 3. Patriotic and universally known songs translated into Spanish. 4. Miscella-
neous old songs, rounds and singing games. Spanish words throughout and piano accompaniments
except in part 4. Christmas songs are included.
For elementary and junior and senior high school students.
Available from the publisher, 45 E. 17th Street, New York. $1.25

Luce, Allena (compiler)

VAMOS A CANTAR. Songs of Spain and of the Americas, together with a supplement of songs popu-
lar in the Americas. Boston, D. C. Heath and Co. , 1946. 104 p.

Songs with piano accompaniment and words in the original language, some arranged for two parts.
Includes Christmas songs. An appendix of notes in English provides good descriptive material.
For junior and senior high school Spanish students.
Available from the publisher, 285 Columbus Avenue, Boston 16, Mass. 52 cents

Mufioz, Maria JLuisa (compiler and editor)

CANCIONES HISPANOAMERICANAS. New York, American Book Co. , 1952. 160 p.

52 songs arranged for choir by Louis Woodson Curtis, Edward L. Heth, Francisco Lopez Cruz,

Haydee M. Canovas, Maria Mercedes Moreno, and Maria Luis a Muftoz.

Murillo, Ernesto (editor)

NATIONAL ANTHEMS OF THE COUNTRIES OF NORTH, CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA.

Chicago, Clayton F. Summy Co. , 1942. 72 p.

Piano accompaniment; words in the original language.

For junior and senior high school students and adults.

Available from the publisher, 235 S. Wabash Ave. , Chicago 4, 111. $1.00

Ramboz, Ina (compiler)

‘ CANCIONES DE NAVIDAD, a collection of Christmas songs in Spanish. Dallas, Banks Upshaw and
Co., 1941. 27 p.

Piano accompaniments to 12 traditional carols (Silent Night, Holy Night; Adeste Fideles; It Came
Upon a Midnight Clear; etc. ) and 5 Christmas songs of Spanish origin. Arranged chiefly for two
voices. No English words.

For high school and college Spanish students.
Available from the publisher, 707 Browder St. , Dallas, Texas. 40 cents

Ramirez-Peralta, Jose’ (compiler)

NATIONAL MUSIC OF THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, compiled in commemoration of the 100th anni-
versary of Dominican Independence. With an historical preface by Julius Mattfeld. New York, Alpha
Music, 1944. 45 p.

Contains 16 pieces illustrative of native rhythms, by contemporary Dominican composers, including
piano solos, songs with piano accompaniment and Spanish words, and the National Anthem. One of
the songs has English words also.

For adults and senior high school students of Spanish.
Available from the publisher, 501 Madison Ave. , New York, N. Y. $2. 00

Pan American Union

CHRISTMAS IN LATIN AMERICA. Washington, D. C. , Pan American Union. 15 p.
A profusely -illustrated pamphlet with Christmas songs from Mexico, Nicaragua, Chile, Costa Rica
and Venezuela. At the end of the work there is a list of references on Christmas in Latin America.
Reprinted from the Bulletin of the Pan American Union, December 1944, 1945 and 1946, with supple-
mentary material on Panama.
Available from the Pan American Union. 10 cents

52

Washington 6, D. C. , Pan American

Pan American Union

SOME LATIN AMERICAN FESTIVALS AND FOLK DANCES.

Union. 1946. 20 p.

A well Illustrated pamphlet describing traditional celebrations in Peru, the Carnival in Brazil, and

folk dances in Mexico and elsewhere in Latin America. Includes musical examples. Reprinted from

the Bulletin of the Pan American Union, February and November 1939.

Available from the Pan American Union. 10 cents

Washington 6, D. C. , Pan American Union, 1949.

Pan American Union, Department of Cultural Affairs
FOLK SONGS AND DANCES OF THE AMERICAS.
23 p. ill.

This booklet contains choreography and music for folk dances from 5 different countries: Argentina,
Brazil, Mexico, Panama, United States. It includes also 5 folk songs from: Colombia, Dominican ‘
Republic, Haiti, Venezuela, Bolivia. The words of the songs and dances are in the original lan-
guages. To be used by elementary school children and high school students.
Available from the Pan American Union. 25 cents

Washington 6, D. C. , Pan American

Pan American Union, Department of Cultural Affairs

FOLK SONGS AND DANCES OF THE AMERICAS, No. 2.

Union, 1950. 18 p. ill.

This booklet contains choreography and music for folk dances from 5 different countries: Chile,

Colombia, United States (New Mexico), Paraguay and Puerto Rico. It includes also 5 folk songs from

Argentina, Brazil, El Salvador, Guatemala and Uruguay. The words are in the original language.

Available from the Pan American Union. 25 cents

Pan American Union

NATIONAL ANTHEMS OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. Facsimile edition, official editions, voice

and piano. Washington 6, D. C. Pan American Union, 1949.

Available from the Pan American Union. $2. 00

Pan American Union

CANCIONERO POPULAR AMERICANO. 75 songs of the twenty-one American Republics, for voice

and piano. Washington 6, D. C. , Pan American Union, 1950. 127 p.

Available from the Pan American Union. 50 cents
A musician in El Beni, in Bolivia, plays a 12-
barreled panpipe* One of the most widely-used
instruments in western South America, the pan-
pipe is also one of the oldest, going back to
pre-Columbian times.

53

SELECTIVE LIST OF ALBUMS OF PHONOGRAPH RECORDS

of Latin American Music
Available in the United States
1. Concert Music (Alburns)

South American Chamber Music. Selected and arranged by Nicolas Slonimsky.

Contents: Chflros by H. Villa-Lobos; Dangafrom Trio Brasileiro of O. Lorenzo
Fernandez; Caballitos by C. Pedrell; El Tango by A. Broqua; Samaritana da
Floresta by O. Lorenzo Fernandez; CangSto Brasileira by F. Mignone; Palavras
a MamSC by J. Fisher; CanpSo do Mar by O. Lorenzo Fernandez; Arabesque by
D. Santa Cruz; Cantos del Peru by A. Sas; Danza by G. Uribe-Holguin; Trozo en
Sentimento Popular by G. Uribe-Holguin.

“Carlos Chavez Music. Contents: Sinfonia India; Sinfonia de Antigona; Chaconne
(Buxtehude- Chavez).

Music from South America. Eduardo Fabini. Contents: Isle of the Ceibos; The
Country.

Festival of Brazilian Music. Recorded in collaboration with the Museum of Modern

Art and the Commissioner General from Brazil. Compositions of H. Villa-Lobos.
Contents: Bachianas Brasileiras No. 1; Noneto for chamber orchestra and chorus;
CangSo do Carreiro; Quatuor for harp, celesta, flute, saxophone and women’s
voices.

Piano Music of H. Villa-Lobos. Contents: A Prole do Beb no. 1; Alegria na horta.

Quartet no. 6 in E. By H. Villa-Lobos.

Columbia
Set M 437

Victor
M 503

Victor
G 21

Victor
DM 773

Victor
M 970

International
Set IM301

2. Folk and Popular Music (Albums)

Latin American Folk Music. Contents: Vidalita by A. Sinopoli; Inca dance (Peru); Decca

No llores, corazon by R. Romero (Chile); Guarani dance (Paraguay); Arroro de 174

mi nifio by I. Savio (Uruguay); Chtfros 1, by H. Villa-Lobos (Brazil).

Latin American Folk Music. Contents: Cancidn popular by M. PonCe (Mexico); Decca

Habanera (Cuba); El capulf by R. Romero (Ecuador); Joropo, P. E. Gutie’rrez 186

(Venezuela); Native dance (Bolivia); Bambuco (Colombia).

Latin American Music. Contents: La zandunga (Rancher a- Mexico); La mulata Tomasa Alpha

(Rumba- Cuba); Noche de ronda (Waltz); Tres palabras (Bolero); Caminito de tu C20

casa (Merengue- Dominic an Republic); Chapinita (Corrido-Guatemala); Adios
Mariquita (Cancion mexicana); Mi nuevo amor (Bolero).

Qlga Coelho in Folklore Songs of South America. Contents: Brazilian songs: Quebra Hargail

o cSco menina, C. Guarnieri; Rei Mandou me chama; Bambalele*; Dem Bau, MW700

C. Guarnieri. Inca songs: De blanca tierra; Kurikinga Mapafiawi. Spanish songs:
Cancion andaluza; Ninanana, M. Falla.

54

Rumba and Conga Album. Contents: El maraquero, Grenet (Conga); La conga, Grenet; Columbia

Ay si, ay no, Vasquez (Conga); Panama, Lecuona (Conga); Rumba blanca, Orefiche; C3

Canto mdio, Lecuona (Rumba); Viene la conga; Conga Karabalicero; La guajira,
Orefiche (Rumba); Rumba Tambah, Chamfleury, Hernandez y Blanc; Cubanakan,
M. Simons (Rumba); Dime adios, Orefiche.

Songs and Dances of Latin America. Contents:- A night in Rio, R. Romero (Chdro); Alpha

Canto moruno, T. Moscoso (Paso doble); Para que sufras, Farrer-Skylar (Bolero); A3

Asi, M. Grever (Bolero); Temor, Gil-Paris (Bolero); Chiquita banana (Rumba); El
espiante, O. Fresedo (Tango); Punto guanacasteco (Danza),

South American Fiesta. Contents: Lejos de mi bien, O. Maldona<lo- Infante (Zamba); Victor

Amargura, A. Le Pera-C. , Gardel (Tango Cancion); Alma llanera, R. B. Coronado- P135
P. E. Gutierrez (Joropo); Ay! Dame tu corazon, Pascalle-M. T. Hidrobo; Guabina
Chiquinquirefia; A. Urdaneta F. ; Las mirlas, J. M. Trespalacios (Bambuco).

Typical Latin American Melodies. Contents: Tango verde (Ecuador); Tico-tico no fuba Alpha

(Samba- Brazil); Alma llanera (Joropo- Venezuela); Granada (Mexico); Recuerdos A2

(Pasillo- Colombia); 18 de septiembre (Cueca-Chile); Sol y sombra (Paso doble);
Andalusia (Cuba).

Fiesta in Argentina. Contents: Salud, dinero y amor, R. Schiammarella (Vals); Tengo Victor

mil novias, E. Cadicamo-E. Rodriguez (Vals); La Cumparsita, G. H. Matos PI 30

Rodriguez (Tango); Caminito, C. Caflalonga- J. de Dios Filiberto (Tango); Como la
tuna, E. Cardenas -W. Maldonado (Gato); Si no me engafias, corazon, C. Bahr-M.
Mise (Tango).

Brazilian Songs. Contents: Foi numa noite calmosa; Bahia; Dans a do caboclo; Benedito Victor

Pretinho; Bia-ta-ta; Berimbau; Tr6s pontos de santo; Tay6ras; Bambalele*. M798

Folk Music of Brazil. Afro-Bahian religious songs from the Archive of American Folk L. C.

Song. Ed. by M. J. Herskovits and F. Herskovits. Library of Congress, Music Album XIII

Division. Contents: Ketu for Eshu; Ketu for Oshossi; Ketu for Osain; Ketu for
Yemanja and Nana; Ketu drum rhythms; Gge for Gbsen; Jesha for Oshun; Congo
Angola for Dandalunda; Guarani for lyena; Caboclo -Tupinamba for Santo Jurumeiro.

Native Brazilian Music. Selected and recorded under the personal’ supervision of Columbia

L. Stokowski. Vol. I. Contents: Macumba de Ochoce*; Macumba de Inhangan; Set C83

Samba cangao; Caboclo do mato; Seu Mane e Luiz; Bambo du bambu; Sappo no sacco
(sic); Keri, K K.

Vol. II. Contents: Ze” Barbino; Tocando pra voc6; Pelo telefone; Passarinho bateu Columbia

asa; Quern me v sorrir; Teirii; Noznai-na; Cantiga de festa; Canide-ioune. Set C84

Cuban Cult Music. Recorded on location by H. Courlander. Contents: Carabali cult Disc

song; Luc urn i cult song; Kimbisa cult song; Lucumi cult song; Carabali cult song; 131

Lucumi cult songs; Dongo cult drums; Djuka cult drums; Carabali cult song; Arara
cult song.

Fiesta in Cuba. Contents: Quiereme rnucho, G. Roig (rumba); Piruli, A. Valdespi Victor

(pregdn); Negra consentida, J. Pardave (rumba); El manicero, M. Simon (pregon); PI 29

Siboney, E. Lecuona (cancion); Ahora seremos felices, F. Hernandez (bolero).

Drums of Haiti. Recorded in Haiti by H. Courlander. Ethnic Folk Library, 1403. E. F. L.

Contents : Vodoun dance; Ibo dance; Salongo dance; Juba dance; Petro dance; Quitta 1403

dance; Congo Larose dance; Baboule dance; Mascaron dance; Gambos; Vaccines;
Bumba dance; Congo dance.

55

Folk Music of Haiti. Recorded on location by H. Courlander. Contents: Congo dance
song; Mais dance song; Ibo dance song; Work song; Vodoun incantation; Moundongue
dance song; Wake song; Mosquito drum; rara trumpets; Ibo dance song; Mais dance
song; Quitta cheche dance song; Quitta chSche drums; Nago drums; Mascaron drums.

Folk Music of Mexico.

From the Archive of the American Folk Song. Ed. by Henrietta
Library of Congress, Division of Music. Contents: Cor a– Son de

Yurchenko. _

cuaresma; Son de semana santa; Son de elote; Son del venado; Yaqui Baile del
venado; El tecolote; Baile del venado; El palo verde; Seri–Cancion de Dios; Cancion
‘ del curandero; Tarahumara–Yumari; Dutuburi; Yumari; Huichol; Fiesta de la
calabaza; Fiesta de los enfermos; Fiesta del peyote; Tzotzil and Tzeltal–Son de
carnaval; Anuncio de carreras de caballo; Son de semana santa; Son de San Juan; Son
de fiesta.

Mexican Cancionero. Vol. I. Contents: El quelite; Pifta madura; La mujer de chuchu;
La potranca; El ranchero; La Julia.

Vol. II. Contents: Toro coquito; Jarabe chiapaS; La chiapaneca; Pajarillo
barranquefto; Tu ya no soplas; Zacatecas.

Program of Mexican Music. Sponsored by the Museum of Modern Art. Contents: Son
mariachi ( Jalisco); La paloma azul (Traditional); Xochipili-Macuilxochitl (Music for
pre-conquest instruments); Danza a Centeotl by C. Chavez; Yaqui music (Sonora-
Traditional); Huapango (Vera Cruz).

Folk Music of Puerto Rico. From the Archive of American Folk Song. Ed. by Richard

A. Waterman. Library of Congress, Division of Music. Contents: Three aguinaldos;
Seis Villaran: Paloma del monte; No lo llores, madre (Baguine song); Hijo a la
guerra (Aguinaldo); Candela es (song); Children f s songs– Arroz con leche; Mata rile;
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (a seis con decima); Gozos a la santisima cruz (Rosario
canta’o); Que viva; Mayo florido.

Puerto Rican Danzas. Composed by J. Morel Campos. Contents: Maldito amor; Felices
dias; Buen humor; Laura y Georgina; Vano empeflo; No me toques; Alma sublime;
Tormento.

Folk Music of Venezuela. From the Archive of American Folk Song. Ed. by Juan

Liscano and Charles Seeger. Library of Congress, Division of Music. Contents:
Baile de las turas; Trompa guajira;-El maremare; El carangano; Pasaje de tambor
redondo “El Egio”; Pasaje de tambor grande; El carangano; Los quitiplas; El
manpulorio; Fulia “Se fue’ volando”; Guasa “Petronila 11 ; Canto para matar la culebra;
Fulia “La paraulata”; Polo margaritefto; Corrido del pajarillo; Gaierdn margariteflo:
Tono de velorio; Golpe “Amalia Rosa”; Fulia margaritefla.

Volonte”. Contents: Panama’m tombe, A. Murat (congo); Souvenirs d’Ha’Jti, Othello
Bayard (meVingue); Vive Haiti, Lumane Casimir (meringue); Guedebel gaon, A.
Murat (banda); Volonti, Jules Heraux and Jean Brierre (meringue); Carolina Cao, A.
Murat (congo).

Bambucos. Contents: Que sabroso, J. del C. Boez P. (bambuco) Bogota, R. Romero
(pasillo); Guabina chiquinquirefta, A. Urdaneta S. (guabina); Chispa, M. Garavito
{pasillo); Alma llanera, P, E. Gutierrez (joropo); El llanero (joropo).

Disc
142

L. C.

Album XIX

General
G 16

General
G 17

Columbia
Set M414

L. C.

Album
XVIII

Victor
M849

L. C.

Album XV

Ven.

Volonte”

Album

Decca
A- 6 14

56

Folk Music of Haiti. Recorded by H. Courlander. Contents: Pile’ Pied’M (ibo dance E. F. L.

music); M’Pas Bwe M’Pas Mange (Ibo dance music); Ogoun Balindjo (invocation); Ezilie 1407
Wedo (invocation); La Famille Li Fai Ca (Ibo dance song); Moundongue Oh Ye Ye Ye
(Dance song); Zamis Loin Moin (secular song); Alexis Nord (political song); Ou Pas
We’m Innocent (secular song); Mainin’m Alle (Congo dance song); Cote Yo, Cote’ Yo
(Mais dance song); Crapeau Tingele” (play song); Balance” Y a Ya (play song); Trois Fe”:
Spirit Conversation; General Brise (Quitta dance song); Mayousse (Carnival song);
Paulette (song).

Cult Music of Cuba. Recorded by H. Courlander. Contents: Luc urn L song, Song to Orisha E. F. L,
Oko, Song to Legba and Yemaya, Abakwa song, Song to Orisha Chango, Abakwa song, 1410
Djuka drums, Lucumi drums, Djuka song, Song to Change’, Song to Obatala.

Folk Music of Peru. Contents: Arza Huamanquina (mestizo marinera); Pajarillo cautivo E. F. L.
(mestizo yaravi); Achachau (mestizo huayno); La palizada (mestizo vals criollo); 1415

Munahuanqui (Quechua huayno); Collaguas (Aymara dance); Chunquinada (mestizo
dance); Torovelakuy (mestizo toril); Wakrapukara (Quechua dance); Sonccuiman
(Quechua yaravi); Los Jilacatas (Aymara dance). Ethnic Folkway Library, 1415.

Latin American Folk Songs. Contents: Meu LimSo, Meu Limoeiro (cCco) and Casinha Victor

pequenina (cangSo) from Brazil; Coplas, L. Cimaglia de Espinosa (cancion) and La S-50

Mulita, F. Amor, from Argentina; Ay, Ay, Ay, O. Perez Freire (cancion) from Chile;
El manicero, M. Simons (rumba) from Cuba.

Brazilian Piano Music. Contents: Brazilian Folk Songs, Villa-Lobos (I & II); Toccata, Columbic

Guarnieri; The Three Maries, Villa-Lobos; Memories of Childhood, Pinto (I & II); MM692

Ora$ao da Noite, Itibere (I & II).

3. Some Long Playing Records
Boleros Selectos, por el Trio Los Panchos
Cuban Rhythms
Cugat — Conga Dance Parade
Cugat — Tropical Bouquets
Fiesta Time

Latin American Music – Machito
Latin American Rhythms
Latin American Rhythms
Mexican Folk Dances
Program of Mexican Music

Roig, Gonzalo: CECILIA VALDES (zarzuela)
Sayao, Bidu: Folk Songs of Brazil
Villa-Lobos: UIRAPURU

Villa-Lobos: Mass of Saint Sebastian

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